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Titel: 現代漢語「也」與日語相應形式之對比分析及教學應用
A Contrastive Analysis of "Ye" in Mandarin Chinese and Its Counterparts in Japanese with Pedagogical Amplications
Autoren: 陳俊光
Stichwörter: 副詞「也」
adverb “Ye”
prompting auxiliary “も(mo)
contrastive analysis of Chinese and Japanese contrast
Erscheinungsdatum: 2012
Zusammenfassung: 漢語副詞「也」,在現代漢語使用頻率中,可說是使用頻率相當高的詞彙。「也」和日文語的提示助詞「も」(mo)有相應的部分,如:「我也去」,句中的「也」可直接對應為「も」(mo),而且句法位置都相同,但有時「也」卻無法與「も」(mo)相應,如「這張畫也還拿得出去」。不相應的部分,常造成日籍學習者的偏誤。 有鑑於此,本文根據Halliday (1985,1994,2004)的三大語言純理功能為主要架構,藉由文獻探討,找出「也」的核心功能,同時透過自行建置的漢日對譯語料庫,討論「也」在語義、語法-語篇及語用三個層面的功能,之後與日語對比,試圖找出與「也」相對應的日語形式。 從文獻探討中得出「也」的核心語義為「異中有同」,內建了在同類範圍中必有兩個以上要素的集合概念。同時進一步以「也」的核心語義為基礎,推論「也」的邏輯語義可為「相似添加」、「對立添加」、「極性添加」和「全括添加」四類。從漢日對譯語料庫中得知「相似添加」的出現頻率最高,應為「也」的基本類型。延伸到語篇層面,得知「也」的管界範圍可小自詞組,大至跨段,甚至可超出句子的形式範疇,存在於聽、說雙方的共知中。這都是與「也」的核心概念相關。由於「也」本身具有要素的集合概念,同時又為「焦點敏感算子」,其在語義上所指向的要素,就帶有對比性。另外在語用層面,「也」具有反說話者預期並從中產生落差語氣的語用功能。以Horn(1984)的Q原則和R原則來看,說話者是透過預期與事實值的落差,達到諷刺或委婉的效果。 將「也」與日語對比,發現半數以上比例可與「も(mo)」對應,而有17%與「ても(temo)」相對應。由於「も(mo)」為提示助詞,主要功能就是使文中某個要素更加顯著,並產生對比效果,這個特性使得「も(mo)」在語篇上與「也」有很高的相似性。至於語用層面,「も(mo)」也具有「出乎預料之外」的功能,但不具有「委婉/詠嘆」的功能。 最後分析現行對日華語教材,將對比結果落實至教學排序與教材編寫中,以利於教師教學和學習者學習。
In modern mandarin Chinese, adverb “ye” is used fairly frequently. “Ye” corresponds partly to the prompting auxiliary “mo” in Japanese. For example, in sentences like “我也去”, “ye” can be directly translated into “mo” and they both occur in the same syntactic place. However, as “ye” can not be translated into “mo” in sentences like “這張畫也還拿得出去”, Japanese students often make errors. With the metafunction proposed by Halliday(1985, 1994, 2004) as its main framework and through literature review, this paper tries to uncover the core function of “ye”. And by establishing a Chinese-Japanese corpus, this paper also discusses “ye” from three different levels, including semantic, discourse and pragmatic level. Then, a contrastive analysis is made so as to find the counterpart of “ye” in Japanese. From literature review, it’s known that the core semantic meaning of “ye” is “likeness within difference”, denoting inherently an assembly of at least two elements in the same category. From the core semantic meaning, it is further deduced that “ye” encompasses four different logic-semantic relations, including “similar addition”, “contrary addition”, “extreme addition”, and “entire addition.” Analysis of the Chinese-Japanese corpus shows that “similar addition” is the most frequently used one, indicating it as the fundamental type of “ye.” In terms of discourse level, the scope of “ye” ranges from a phrase to a paragraph, even beyond a sentence, shared by the two parties in a dialogue. This is all related to the core concept of “ye.” As “ye” itself is a concept of assembly and a focus-sensitive operator at the same time, the elements referred to are thus contrastive. In addition, pragmatically, “ye” functions against the speaker’s anticipation, thus creating a drop of tone. From the Q-principle and R-principle by Horn(1984), it is through the difference between anticipation value and fact value that the effect of irony or euphemism is carried out. Through comparison, it is found that more than half of the Chinese “ye” correspond to “mo” in Japanese. As a prompting auxiliary, the function of “mo” is to render a certain element more conspicuous and create contrast, resembling “ye” a lot in the discourse level. Pragmatically, “mo” also signifies “unexpectedly” but not “to euphemize/to adore .” Lastly, this study analyzes current teaching materials for Japanese students and applies the findings of this paper to teaching material design and instructional sequence so as to facilitate both teachers and students.
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