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標題: 漢語重動構式初探及其教學應用
A Preliminary Study on the Verb-Copying Construction and its Pedagogical Applications
作者: 蕭惠貞
陳品文
關鍵字: 構式語法
重動句
致使
教學應用
Construction Grammar
Verb-Copying Sentence
Cause
Pedagogical Applications
公開日期: 2012
摘要: 漢語重動句(本文稱之為「漢語重動構式」)是指在一個句中重複兩次相同動詞,第一個動詞帶賓語、第二個動詞帶補語的句法形式,例句如:「他看書看累了」。前人多針對重動構式的動詞或補語等句法成份進行研究並提出使用限制,且以動詞或補語類別預測重動構式使用的強制性與選擇性。然而,有鑑於只討論各句法成份並無法全面且系統性地分析重動構式的特點,本文以Goldberg (1995)的「構式語法」(Construction Grammar)為理論基礎,分析重動構式的句法形式、意義內容,以及兩者間的對應關係,對漢語重動構式進行完整的探討。 漢語重動構式之句法形式可表示為SV1OV2C,V1=V2,其所對應之意義為「致使」,表達「X藉由W致使Y產生/變成Z」的語義。X、W、Y、Z分別代表四種語義成份:致事(causer)、致使力(force)、役事(causee)及致使結果(result)。本文發現重動構式的語義成分與句法成分間的對應關係為:致使力對應V2;致使結果對應C;致事與役事在句法成份的對應視補語語義指向分成兩種。當補語語義指向動詞,致事對應S,役事對應V1O結構,表達「S藉由V2致使V1O結構產生C」的語義;若補語語義指向主詞,則致事對應V1O結構,役事對應S,表達「V1O結構藉由V2致使S產生C」的語義。 據筆者對中研院漢語平衡語料庫及聯合知識庫中所有重動構式語料的歸納與統計結果顯示,重動構式共有四種表層形式:SVOVC(了)、SVOV得C、SVOV到C、SVOV了C。其中,SVOVC(了)形式在結構及語義的複雜度上最低,且使用頻率最高,為重動構式的原型,其它三種形式則為擴展構式。另外,筆者亦從語料中發現,只要形式上必須有代表持續性(durative)事件類型(event type)的「V1O結構」,且要表達「致使」語義時,就強制使用重動構式,如:「我們讀書讀累了」。 最後,本文藉由使用頻率的統計結果並考量結構與語義的複雜度,將重動構式的教學順序定為:SVOVC (了)→SVOV了C→SVOV得C→SVOV到C,並找出高頻的V1O結構詞彙,如「考試」、「讀書」等,作為教材編寫例句時的參考。
A special sentence pattern called "verb-copying sentence" (it is named "verb-copying construction" in this article) in Mandarin Chinese refers to the structure in which a verb is copied when it takes two elements—an object and a complement— for example, "ta kan shu kan lei le. " Previous studies usually focus on the syntactic constituents such as the verb or the complement, and apply these syntactic constituents to predict when a verb-copying construction should be used. However, simply discussing the syntactic constituents in the verb-copying construction cannot analyze the verb-copying construction’s characteristics in a complete and systematic manner. The study looks into the form and meaning of the verb-copying construction based on Goldberg’s(1995) Construction Grammar. The syntactic form of verb-copying construction can be expressed as SV1OV2C, V1=V2. It corresponds to the central sense of "cause", expressing the meaning of "X cause Y become Z by W. " X、Y、Z、W represents the causer, causee, result, and force respectively. This article discusses the components of syntactic form in verb-copying construction, which correspond to the components of verb-copying construction. Force corresponds to V2, and result corresponds to C. The semantics of the complement decide which component of syntactic the causer and causee correspond to. If the semantics of the complement describes the verb, then the causer corresponds to S and the causee correspond to V1O, which expresses the meaning of "S cause V1O become C by V2. " If the semantics of the complement describes the subject, then the causer corresponds to V1O and the causee correspond to S, which expresses the meaning of "V1O cause S become C by V2. " The example sentences in this article all come from the Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Chinese and Udndata. According to the analysis of the results, it is found that the verb-copying construction has four surfaces in the form: SVOVC(le), SVOVdeC, SVOVdaoC, and SVOVleC. The SVOVC(le) form has the highest frequency of use. It is the prototype of verb-copying construction, and the other three are the extended forms. The result has also suggested that as long as "VO structure" is present, whenever one wants to convey the meaning of "cause" , the verb-copying construction has to be used. The last part of this article is the pedagogical application. According to the statistical results of frequency of use, it is believed that the teaching sequence of the verb-copying construction should be SVOVC(le) → SVOVleC → SVOVdeC → SVOVdaoC. This research also suggested several common VO structures which contain the verb-copying construction, as a reference for teachers to compile their teaching materials.
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