Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86440
Title: 中文讚美語、回應策略與感知辨識之中介語分析—以英語背景學習者為例
Interlanguage analysis of Chinese compliments, compliment responses, and perception of compliments: The case of English learners of Chinese
Authors: 曾金金
Chin-Chin, Tseng
蕭瑩華
Ying-Hua, Hsiao
Keywords: 讚美
回應策略
感知辨識
跨文化溝通
compliments
compliment responses
perception of compliments
cross-cultural communication
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: 讚美會因交際雙方文化背景的差異而產生語言形式、使用時機、話題內容及功能上的差別,過去針對讚美言語行為的分析,多為單語或雙語對比分析,較少從跨文化溝通與華語教學的角度,提供外籍學習者學習中文讚美語的具體內涵。本研究旨在研究中文讚美言語行為,分析中文讚美語的主題偏好、語言結構與讚美回應策略,並進行讚美感知與非讚美辨識的測驗,參與實驗的對象共兩組,一為中文母語者,一為以中文為標的語的英語背景學習者,本研究採取口說語篇測驗研究法與訪談方式,以蒐集受試者的中文讚美語料進行分析。 本實驗結果發現,中文母語者及英語背景學習者皆偏好「外貌」與「表現」的讚美主題,而中文讚美語的句型結構是以「人/物+(INT)+ADJ」為主,讚美的焦點在於對話的主體上,受到集體主義觀念影響,中文的語言形式也表現出重視群體和諧關係的特質,因此,中文母語者多以第二人稱「你/您」為主語,表達關心、尊重;反之,英語背景學習者受到個人主義觀念的影響,會傾向使用句首為第一人稱「我」的主語,來表達個人的評論與觀感。中文讚美句型中,以形容詞/狀態動詞為主要乘載正面讚美評價的詞類,另外由於高語境文化的特質,中文讚美語的語言形式靈活多元,詞彙的涵義有時隱晦委婉;相較之下,英語背景學習者受低語境文化特質的影響,使用含蓄讚美的比例較低,且傾向使用語言形式固定且意思明確的明示型讚美進行溝通。此外,中文讚美語根據使用情境與對象的不同,也會隨之衍生出「招呼」、「感謝」、「請求」與「鼓勵」不同的語用功能。 而在讚美回應部分,中文母語者使用的回應類型為「拒絕」,而英語背景學習者偏好使用「接受」的回應類型,中文母語者以貶抑拒絕的方式表示謙遜有禮的態度,而英語背景學習者視感謝接受的方式為符合社會禮儀規範的形式。除了因文化產生中、英回應策略的異同之外,中文母語者回應讚美的過程中,傾向使用合併策略與交際者做溝通與協調,而英語背景學習者使用合併策略的頻率較低,但研究結果也顯示,學習者的中文程度愈高,其語言表現也會愈接近中文母語者的情形。 至於讚美感知辨識的部分,研究發現,表面為讚美形式,但實表諷刺、請求語用功能的非讚美語,會對英語背景學生造成溝通理解上的難點;另外,含蓄型的讚美也因為無法從語言形式裡發現顯而易見的正面評價詞,所以無論是對於中文母語者或英語背景學習者來說,都會加深讚美感知辨識的困難性。在教學應用上,筆者根據實驗所觀察到的中文讚美言語結構、主題和形式,安排學習的程序,並依照初、中、高不同等級設計相關的讚美教學活動,以幫助培養學生實際進行讚美語言溝通的交際能力。
Studies to date have concentrated mostly on monolingual analysis, or contrastive analysis of compliments in bilingual corpora; however, little empirical research has been done on compliments and compliment responses in interlanguage analysis. The present study aims at exploring compliment and compliment response sequences produced by English learners of Chinese and Chinese speakers in Taiwan. This study has three concerns. First, the main concern in the study is to determine the categories of compliments, the basic syntactic forms and the major compliment focus in Mandarin. Second, the study will determine the strategies for compliment responses, which Chinese speakers in Taiwan prefer to use. Finally, to investigate the perception of implicit compliments and the distinction of non-compliment forms for English learners of Chinese. The study was carried out through the use of oral discourse completion tests (ODCT) supplemented by interviews. The research shows that both Chinese speakers and English learners of Chinese prefer to compliment on the topics of appearance and performance. With regard to syntactic forms preference, the NP/PRON + (intensifier) + ADJ pattern is mostly used. With respect to the compliment focus, both groups of participants use “subject” as the compliment focus rather than the ”object/action”. In addition, under the influence of collectivism and the high-context culture, Chinese speakers care more about the addressee and tend to use “you” as the subject of the structure to show their respect to the addressee. In contrast, English learners of Chinese governed by the individualism and the low-context culture prefer using “I” to demonstrate their own opinions. As for the compliment response, with a different definition of politeness based on the opposite cultural background, Chinese speakers are more likely to reject a compliment. Specifically, Chinese speakers prefer to combine two different strategies to respond to a compliment. The reject response type is the case of modesty application, that is, strategies for self-praise avoidance for Chinese. In contrast, English learners of Chinese tend to accept a compliment and they regard the accept response type as the proper way to show politeness to the addressee. Besides, either the perception of the implicit compliments or the distinction of the non-compliment forms would cause difficulties for English learners of Chinese. So, the researcher designed practical lesson plans for basic, intermediate, and advanced students with pedagogical illustrations based on the empirical findings in the present research. This will help teach foreign students how to perceive implicit compliments, distinguish the non-compliment forms, give compliments and respond to compliments in a polite way in order to develop the ability for cross-cultural communication.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0695240170%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86440
Other Identifiers: GN0695240170
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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