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Title: 漢語致使結構之語義、篇章、語用分析及 教學初探─以「讓」字句為例
A Semantic, Discourse, and Pragmatic Analysis of the Mandarin Causative Construction Rang with Pedagogical Application
Authors: 陳俊光
Rang (讓)
causative construction
periphrastic causative
pivotal sentence
discourse analysis
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: 「讓」具多項意義,從表示「禮讓」、「轉讓」的普通動詞到具有使令義的「容許」、「允任」、「命令」,最後成了抽象的「致使」與「被動」。在現代漢語中,致使結構「讓」字句有時候是表示抽象致使的「讓1」,有時候是表示允許、任憑、命令的「讓2」,兩者無論在語法形式的分佈上與語義角色搭配上皆有差異之處,因此「讓」字句的區分有助於學習者在使用時的掌握程度。此外,我們也提出致使結構「讓」字句應與兼語句區分。 首先,語義層面探討「讓」的多義現象,不僅是由語境所造成,也能從句法、語義層面來檢驗,除了核心語義外,「讓1」與「讓2」最大的不同在於NP1為「致事」或「施事」,並且「讓2」前面能用「不」、「別」否定,其NP2常可被省略,後面多為動態的「事件」,「讓1」後的事件多為靜態的「狀態」,並帶結果,即狀態的改變。再者,大陸地區使用「讓2」的頻率似乎比台灣地區高,地區性的差別也許在於「讓2」的多義性中有些是台灣地區少用的,如命令義。 其次,篇章層面中「讓」本身具有的「作用─效應」(cause-effect)關係及「因果關係」的邏輯語義關係,「讓1」有連貫「原因─結果」,「讓2」「行動─目的」的功能,並且「讓1」、「讓2」也有不同的前後景功能,前者帶出後景,後者帶出前景。 第三,「讓1」在語用層面裡具有「歸因」的功能,一方面可以將功勞或責任歸於「致使者」,也是「語用預設觸發語」表示狀態的改變,最典型的用法便是常應用於廣告標語上。「讓2」為情態動詞,表示義務情態,具有「要求」、「命令」功能,當發話者權力或影響較低時則有「建議」以及「忠告」用法;發話者也可以藉由將決定權力交給受話者而表現出委婉、拖延、暫緩的語氣。 根據研究結果與分析,我們檢視目前幾本主要通行華語教材中「讓」字句的編寫,對教材編寫提出建議,以期對日後教材編寫有所助益,並以研究結果為本,在教學應用上,從各層面針對「讓」字句的教學排序之建議。
This paper discusses, three dimensions of language according to Halliday’s functional grammar, “ideational,” “discourse/textual,” and “interpersonal.” We examine the causative construction Rang in the above-mentioned three dimensions to see Rang from a thorough and detailed perspective. We also distinguish the causative construction Rang from pivotal construction. Rang has multiple meanings. As a verb, it means “to yield; to give away to.” When it serves as a causative verb, it can be viewed in two ways: one still involves the concrete meaning, “to allow; to permit,” “to order; to request,” which is Rang2. The other is more abstract, meaning “to make; to cause,” which is Rang1 in this paper. Rang1 and Rang2 differ from each other even setting aside grammatical form or collocation of semantic roles. Therefore, distinguishing Rang1 from Rang2 will be helpful for the Chinese learner, and aid them in comprehension when learning Rang. First, Rang’s ambiguious nature is not only a result of context, but also can be deduced from the syntax and semantics. Besides the core meaning mentioned in the previous paragraph, the major difference between Rang1 and Rang2 is the semantic role of NP1, the subject of the sentence. Rang1 collocates with the causer role, and Rang2 with the agent. Moreover, Rang2 can be negated by adding bu andbie before it while Rang1 can not, and the NP2 following Rang2 can be omitted. An event usually appears after Rang2, but after Rang1 instead appears a static state with result, that is, a change of state. Rang2 is used more frequently than Rang1 in Mainland China, while Rang2, such as the meaning of “to order; to request,” is seldom used in Taiwan. Second, Rang1 functions in the discourse to establish a coherent “cause-effect” relation and logi-semantic “cause and result” relationship, while Rang2 connects “action and purpose”. Both of them also play different roles in the functioning of background and foreground. Third, in a pragmatics analysis, Rang1 can reflect the speaker’s intention by placing blame or merit onto NP1 in the Rang1 construction. It is also a presupposition trigger indicating change of state, and in this sense, its most representative usage is in slogans in commercial advertisements. Rang2 is a modal verb indicating deontic modality and can be used when making a request or ordering someone to do something. When the speaker has lower authority or less influence on the listener, the Rang2 construction becomes a suggestion or piece of advice. Furthermore, the speaker can temporize, hedge, or avoid by ceding power of decision to the listener. Based on the results of our study, we rearrange Rang’s pedagogical grammar sequence and also design some exercises in class, wishing to shed light on the grammar of Rang, and moreover on how to teach it in a more effective way.
Other Identifiers: GN0695240118
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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