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Title: 外籍學習者漢語句末語氣助詞習得研究與教學應用
Authors: 曾金金
Keywords: 句末語氣助詞
Issue Date: 2010
Abstract: 英語主要以語調(intonation)和動詞的屈折變化,來表現說話者的語氣(tone),而漢語的語氣系統中,句末語氣助詞(utterance-final particles),讓說話者只要在句末加上一個字,就能表達不同的感覺、情緒與態度。漢語句末語氣助詞,如「啊」、「啦」、「吧」、「嗎」、「呢」、「嘛」,表現母語者多樣的語氣,外籍學習者卻常不知如何使用。 本文探討出現於語料庫及教材中,六個高詞頻的漢語句末語氣助詞:「啊」、「啦」、「吧」、「嗎」、「呢」、「嘛」,以及外籍學習者的學習過程影響。研究中利用主要個案–以英語為母語之外籍學習者,其所構擬之情境對話,與對話合適度評分問卷,觀察不同母語 (英、日) 之外籍學習者,對於六個句末語氣助詞在對話中的語氣感知程度;並透過母語遷移理論,討論外籍學習者學習漢語句末語氣助詞時,若其母語具有相似語氣助詞之語言項目,是否佔有習得之優勢。 由外籍學習者所構擬的情境對話語料,分析得知「啊」、「呢」和「嘛」,是本文研究個案對象掌握度較低的語氣助詞。問卷結果並顯示,外籍學習者對句末語氣助詞出現之情境的感知掌握,並無明顯的差異性,僅有「嗎」的情境對話評分結果較一致。 針對外籍學習者所使用之主要華語教材中,句末語氣助詞之語義和語法說明討論。在句末語氣助詞的編排上,各教材中的分布、頻率和語法的解說並無一致性。由構擬情境測試顯示,外籍學習者對句末語氣助詞使用情境掌握不佳,雖然理解了搭配詞語的句義,在實際的語用上,想要透過各個句末語氣助詞變化語氣,表現不同的情緒、態度、場合或關係等,仍非易事。 最後,依據情境對話語料、合適度評分、與教材方面的分析與討論,從學習者角度,以英語為母語之外籍學習者做為主要教學對象,提出句末語氣助詞教學上的建議。
The Utterance-Final Particles, like “a”,“la”,“ba”, “ma(嗎)”,“ne”,“ma(嘛)”are important in the Chinese system of tone of voice. By just adding one of them at the end of a sentence, speakers can express their various feelings, moods and attitudes. This study focuses on the above mentioned six utterance-final particles, which appear in high frequency in corpora and textbooks, as well as the nonnative learners’ acquisition performance of those utterance-final particles. We found from the situational conversation acceptability scale questionnaire that nonnative learners of Chinese, such as Americans and Japanese, both have problems with Chinese utterance-final particles. From the situational conversation that the English native learner composed, and the result of the questionnaire, we found that the learner has more problems with the particles “a”, “ne” and “ma (嘛)”. In the study, we also analyzed the six utterance-final particles in the Chinese textbooks, such as<Practicle Audio-Visual Chinese>, <Far East Everyday Chinese>, and <Integrated Chinese>. It seems that there isn’t a set standard for the six utterance-final particles in the textbooks. In addition, the basic meaning of each particle may not be difficult to grasp, but with the lack of situational stimuli and actual pragmatic use provided in the textbook, it’s not an easy task for second language learners of Chinese to produce those utterance-final particles in an appropriate context. At the endof this study, teaching suggestions for the six utterance-final particles based on the findings and analysis for English native learners are provided.
Other Identifiers: GN0695240106
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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