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dc.description.abstract漢語動詞後置成分包括趨向補語、結果補語、程度語與動量詞等,趙元任(1968)指出漢語趨向補語與德語動詞之可分離前綴相似,但常見以德語為母語之漢語學習者的偏誤情況,如「*他坐下去喝茶」、「*門都鎖到了」等,故本論文針對以德語為母語之漢語學習者為研究對象,以書面語料為中介語研究材料,透過漢德對比分析與教材內容探討,以分析結果為依據進行問卷調查,並進行偏誤分析,以期能釐清學習者的偏誤來源,並進一步了解學習者趨向補語習得情況。 由文獻可知,趨向補語除帶有趨向義,亦含隱喻和轉喻而得的引申義;再加上趨向補語的句式,除須考慮賓語和處所詞的句中位置外,常伴隨出現的把字句及可能式之漢語特殊句式亦增加趨向補語的難度。從對比分析結果得知,德語可使用不同的形式呈現漢語趨向補語的語義,包括以動詞表示、可分離動詞前綴、介詞組和其他語法成分等,其中漢語趨向補語與動詞可分離前綴的對應常為一對多的關係,顯示趨向補語的語義複雜性,導致學習者的誤用。 從書面語料分析,誤代即德語為母語之漢語學習者最主要的偏誤現象,除了趨向補語間的誤用外,學習者亦受漢語其他動詞後置成分與亦可於動後的時貌詞(如:了、著)影響,造成語内偏誤。原因為教材說明不清,對於語義和句法解釋不夠全面,提供語境不完全,對於相對應的德語釋義易造成誤解。另一方面基於對比分析進行的問卷調查顯示德語的影響,如形式上多以介詞組表達動作趨向而非趨向補語、賓語或處所詞置於動補結構之後;語義上誤用「來/去」、「出來/起來」等。另外相較於表示時相的轉喻義,隱喻義較易造成偏誤。 了解學習者習得情況後,本文提出之教學建議為:1)對於「來/去」表達的語用意涵和主觀範疇應納入教學。2)須正確告知學習者「到」的隱喻義用法和「著」之間的替換原則。3)應清楚說明趨向補語的句式與賓語和處所詞的搭配限制。4) 為了釐清趨向補語語義,可以不同語境代換並輔以動作或圖片。5)可對各動詞後置成分進行系統性歸納,幫助學習者辨析。另外,礙於使用教材的限制,可將各類趨向補語的用法列於教師手冊上,以利教學。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractThe post-verbal components of Chinese include directional complements, resultative complements, complements of degree and verbal measure words. Chao, Y. R. (1968) indicated that directional complements of Chinese were similar to the separable prefixes of German. However, German learners’ errors of directional complements such as “*他坐下去喝茶” and “*門都鎖到了” are still widespread. To clarify why German learners’ make errors of directional complements and why they develop these habits, we investigated a series of textbooks by applying contrastive analysis between German and Chinese, and then conducted a questionnaire of error analysis between the two languages. According to the former studies, besides the meaning of directions, directional complements also have complex extended meanings deriving from metaphors and metonyms . Moreover, despite the positions of objects and locations in a sentence structure, directional complements combined with ba-structure (disposal structure) or possible indicators may increase the difficulty of acquisition. Various forms in German, including verbs (no particular expressions), separable prefixes of verbs, and preposition phrases can all be interpreted to Chinese directional complements. Moreover, one-to-many corresponding between directional complements in Chinese and separable prefixes in German are shown. Based on the data analysis in the study, misuse with other expressions is the major error for German learners. Besides the confusion between directional complements, other post-verbal components such as “了” or “著” will result in intralingual errors. We attribute this misunderstanding to the incomplete explanations and insufficient examples in textbooks. On the other hand, our questionnaire analysis shows the influence from German: 1) using preposition phrases as directional movements instead of directional complements, 2) placing objects or locations after VC structures 3) incorrect use of “來/去”, “出來/起來”. It can be seen that, metaphor of directional complements misleads learners more easily than metonymy. As an outcome we suggest that 1) apply the pragmatic functions and the subjective categories of “來/去” in teaching 2) explain the metaphor “到”, and how to discriminate “到“ from “著” 3) explain “到” and the rules of using objects and locations together 4) offer different situations accompanying pictures and physical demonstration in order to distinguish directional complements 5) systematize each post-verbal component. In conclusion, we recommend to make a list of the usage of directional complements in the teachers' manual.en_US
dc.subjectDirectional complementsen_US
dc.subjectInterlanguage analysisen_US
dc.subjectSecond language acquisitionen_US
dc.subjectGerman learnersen_US
dc.subjectContrastive analysisen_US
dc.subjectChinese Pedagogyen_US
dc.titleInterlanguage Analysis of Directional Complements for German learners of Chineseen_US
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