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Title: 漢語「說」類引導碼之分類和語用功能分析
Categorization and Analysis of Chinese “shuo” Expressions as Procedural Encodings
Authors: 鄧守信 博士
Prof. Shou-Hsin Teng
Jiang, Tingyi
Keywords: 說類詞語
Chinese “shuo” expressions/phrases
procedural encoding
Relevance Theory
discourse/pragmatic marker
Issue Date: 2010
Abstract: Sperber 和Wilson (1985)從認知角度提出的關聯理論將語言可表達的意義分為兩種,即主要命題信息內容,和指引聽話者該如何處理這些信息的後設信息。兩種信息相互對立、相互定義,而後者這些表示話語應被解讀的方式的詞語可以預告或提示聽話者接下來之話語和對話參與者的思維應進行的「方向」,為其節省解讀話語時所必須花費的推理心力(efforts)。Blakemore (1987)將這兩種信息分別命名為「概念意義(conceptual meaning)」和「引導意義(procedural meaning)」,並進一步主張言談連接詞(discourse connectives)如so, but, after all等可以直接編碼三種認知效果而具備引導功能,且將這些語言形式稱為「引導碼(procedural encoding)」。引導碼可以在話語的顯義(explicature)或者隱義(implicature)層面作用,與說話者的主觀性有關。關聯理論的引導碼是本論文的出發點,但我們對關聯理論中將語言形式對意義的編碼截然二分的作法持保留態度,因為這種說法並不符合語言普遍的漸變性(gradient)語法化現象(grammaticalization),顯然有必要作進一步的修正。 中文動詞「說」由於在語言中的高頻使用,在隱喻意義上和思維的相似性,與其後設性指涉言談行為的特徵,使其出現顯著的語法化和主觀化現象。「說」從一個表示說話動作的動詞逐漸演變出認知義,在詞性上更虛化為句補詞和表示主觀態度的句首和句末助詞功能。學者們也發現「說」與其他語言成分逐漸凝結為固定結構並產生語用功能,如「我說」、「你說」(林雪娥2000)、「別說」(董秀芳2007)等。這些詞語帶有主觀性,可以引導聽話者更容易推論出話語的關聯性,因此我們可將它們視為帶有引導意義的引導碼。在日常溝通中,事實上我們上使用了非常多的「說」類引導碼 (董秀芳2003, 司紅霞2006),但目前卻沒有研究根據比較完整的理論背景來對「說」類引導碼加以分類和分析。 本論文將在前人研究的基礎上,從關聯理論的角度出發並以語法化理論調整引導碼的概念,同時參考言談標記相關研究以及關聯理論中對話語意義的分類,整理出中文「說」類引導碼的分類,最後從中選擇幾個項目,進一步蒐集相關語料後觀察並描述它們在語境中發揮的語用功能。
In Relevance Theory (Sperber and Wilson 1985), the meanings that can be conveyed by languages are divided into two complementary kinds: ‘conceptual meanings’ and ‘procedural meanings’. The latter kind can give pre-indications to the hearer the expected “direction” about the following utterance and about the proceeding of the thoughts of the interlocutors, and the language forms that encode procedural meanings ‘procedural encodings’. Procedural encodings can function at the explicature level or the implicature level of an utterance, and they are closely related to speaker’s subjectivity. Procedural encodings serve as the starting point of our current study, yet we think that the absolute dichotomy between the conceptual and procedural encodings ignores the semantic gradient developments/changes that have been proved to be prevalent in many different languages. Thus, the theory of grammaticalization should also be taken into account to make the semantic encoding schema proposed in Relevance Theory more powerful. In many studies, the Chinese verb “shuo (say)” has been proved to be grammaticalized and subjectivized through metaphorical uses and pragmatic inferences. Semantically, “shuo (say)” develops epistemic meanings from its original meaning denoting the action of speaking; and, functionary, it develops as a sentence-initial and final particle besides the original verb function. “Shuo (say)” is also gradually forming new expresions through frequent co-occurance with certain linguistic elements, many of which are highly pragmatic-oriented. The current study starts from ‘procedural encoding’, amends it with grammaticalization, taking discussions related to discourse markers as reference, and categorizes the Chinese “shuo (say)” procedural encodings. To further illustrate their pragmatic functions, we will also pick out some of these expressions, examine related data in linguistic corpus, and observe how they work in real communication.
Other Identifiers: GN0694240032
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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