Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86398
Title: 初級佛教華語教材規畫設計
Authors: 信世昌教授
葉德明教授
鄭垂莊
Keywords: 華語文教學
佛教華語教學
佛教華語教材設計
佛教
Issue Date: 2007
Abstract: 華語文教學領域在越南起源於公元119年。Minh tranh(1958)在《越南史略初稿》一書中所描述「從602年到906年佛教、道教與儒教同時在我國(越南)傳播。儘管佛、儒、道是三個不同的教,但是當他們傳到我國時,三教的思想就融合唯一,很難劃清他們的界線。漢字是傳播三教的工具。」於11世紀越南建立科舉制度,華語教學成為國學;漢字成為越南正式文字(于維雅,2002)。至19世紀末葉拉丁文字進入學校漸漸代替了漢字,華語教學因此日愈走向下坡,直到1990年因由政府改善政策,歡迎國外各行各業人士進入投資,交流文化。其中,大陸、台灣人士紛紛到越南開工廠、投資貿易等,越南朝野人士也紛紛去學華語,華語文教學在越南得以復甦與蓬勃。 越南佛教的僧侶為了研讀佛經、翻譯經書、弘揚佛法、教育僧眾,於1980年佛教得到越南政府的承諾之後,成立越南佛教教會,從南到北共36個省市陸陸續續開設初、中、大學佛學院,各所佛學院從初級、中級至大學的學習制度,均必修閱讀、翻譯佛經之元文(漢字)的課 。就初級和中級來說,每一學期必修中文課比率佔三分之一。升到大學時,每一學期必修中文課比率佔三分之二。甚至,於大三、大四還要修華語課。異言之,華語文教學也正式進入各所大學佛學院,成為一門必修的課。 越南佛學院將華語傳授給學僧,採用兩種讀音。一者,採用漢越音來閱讀與翻譯佛經。二者,以華語語音作為第二語言來實教學僧練習聽說華語能力。準此方法來看,越南佛學院將佛法知識、華語閱讀能力與華語溝通能力分開來教。先給學僧佛法知識、訓練華語讀寫能力,之後才操練溝通能力。這種教學方法實在效果不良,所以教師和學僧都期望在佛教華語教學領域能將佛法知識與語言(華語)學融合的新編教材。這樣,學僧一方面能學到佛法知識,另一方面能訓練語言(華語)聽、說、讀、寫能力。使他們完畢四年大學的時間後,就有能力可以承擔四個任務: 1.與華人交往(大陸、台灣)能有良好的溝通。 2.能讀懂佛經。 3.能用中文寫作與翻譯佛經。 4.能從事佛教華語教學與教材編寫工作。
The teaching of Chinese language started in 119 B.C.In his book, Minh Tranh (1958) stated, “From 602 to 906 A.D., Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism were disseminated in uor country (Vietnam) at the same time. Despite that they were three different religions, they integrated with each other when transmitted into Vietnam, so it’s difficult to see the distinction of each. During that period, Chinese was the tool used to preach the three religions.” In the 11th century, the imperial examination system was established. The teaching of Chinese language became a national study. Chinese gradually became the official language of Vietnam (Ya Wui-yia, 2002). In the 19th century, Chinese was replaced with Latin in school so the importance of the teaching of Chinese language decreased. In 1990, due to the government’s policy of welcoming people from Mainland China and Taiwan set up factories or inverted in Vietnam. People in the political sector also started learning Chinese, which revitalized the teaching of Chinese language and made it prosper. After receiving an approval from the Vietnamese government, Buddhist monks in Vietnam established the Vietnam Buddhist Academy (越南佛教會) for the purpose of studying and translating Buddhist manuscripts, disseminating Buddhim and teaching monks. From the south to the north, 36 provinces gradually set up colleges of Buddhist Study, which cover basic, intermediary to university level. At every level, from basic, intermediary to university, it is required to take courses of whole language in order to read and translate Buddhist manuscripts. At the basic and intermediary levels, schools that require students to take Chinese courses every semester make up one-thirds of the total schools and two-thirds at the college level semester make up one-thirds of the total schools and two-thirds at the college level. Some universities even make it mandatory for their juniors and seniors to take Chinese courses. In other works, learning Chinese Language has become mandatory. The Vietnam Buddhist Academy shoulders the responsibility of teaching student monks Chinese. It adopts two reading methods. The first way is to use 漢越音to read and translate Buddhist manuscripts. The second way is to teach Chinese reading as a second language to strengthen students’ ability of Chinese---it teacher student monks Buddhist knowledge first and then teaches them reading and writing in Chinese. Finally, it teaches communication in Chinese. This teaching method has been regardel as ineffective. Thus, teacher and student monks both desire new teaching materials that combine Buddhist knowledge and language skills. In this way, student monks can learn Buddhist knowledge and strengthen their listening, speaking, reading and writing skills in Chinese simultaneousy. Therefore, after graduating from university, they can achieve the following goals: 1.Communicating with Chinese people (from Mainland China and Taiwan); 2.Reading and understanding Buddhist manuscripts; 3.Writing in Chinese and translating Buddhist manuscripts; 4.Teaching Buddhist monks Chinese and designing Chinese teaching material for them.
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http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86398
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