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Title: 現代漢語重述標記語用分析-以「也就是說」與「換句話說」為例
Pragmatic Analysis of Chinese Reformulation Marker–using yejiushishuo and huanjuhuashuo as illustrative examples
Authors: 鄧守信
Shou-Hsin Teng
Junren Wang
Keywords: 重述標記
reformulation marker
procedural encoding
Relevance Theory
conversation analysis
Politeness Principle
Issue Date: 2010
Abstract: 在關聯理論來看,言談交際是「明示-推理」的過程,說話者為了使聽話者更容易理解其交際意圖,除了運用概念表徵(conceptual representation)之外,還常採用各類引導性(procedural)的語言成份來協助聽話者推論,這類語言成份,Blakemore(1987, 2002)稱之為引導碼(procedural encoding),它能對聽話者推導話語的含意或交際意義起制約作用,以期達到準確的理解。本文認為,重述標記(reformulation marker)也是其中一類,說話者可藉由重述標記引導出更貼近說話者本意,或者是更貼近於聽話者認知的話語,以達到交際目的。 有別於傳統上以銜接、連貫為主的語篇分析模式,本文的理論架構從關聯理論切入,以Blakemore所提出的引導碼理論為核心,並且結合Andersen(2001)的語用標記三分論,以及會話分析與禮貌原則(Politeness principle)等理論,多角度探討重述標記的語用功能。 在重述標記分類上,以關聯理論的語境假設(contextual assumption)與語境效果(contextual effect)為著眼點,參考Cuenca and Bach(2007)與江庭宜(2009)的分類,而將其分為擴展性(expansion)、簡縮性(compression)、修正性(modification)三類,並以重述功能強,且極具代表性的「也就是說」、「換句話說」為例進行分析。 由於「也就是說」、「換句話說」在獨白語篇與互動語篇中發揮的作用有明顯差異,因此分別從這兩個角度分析,尤其在互動層面,本文設計了「誘發-自發」綜合式訪談(elicited and spontaneous interview),藉以檢測兩者在互動語境下的作用,結果發現,「也就是說」與「換句話說」的關注焦點不同,對對方意見的認同度以及考慮對方面子的程度都有明顯不同。
In Relevance Theory, communication is an “ostensive-inferential” process. A speaker, in addition to conceptual representation, would also use various procedural elements to help the hearer’s inference. This kind of procedural element is called by Blakemore (1987, 2002): “procedural encoding”. It can restrain the inference process of connotation or communicative meaning, so as to promote accurate understanding. We think that reformulation markers are of this kind. A speaker, by means of a reformulation marker, can instruct an inference to either get closer to the speaker’s intention or to the hearer’s cognition, hence making a successful communication. Unlike traditional analyses that focus on cohesion and coherence in discourse, we start from Relevance Theory and set Blakemore’s procedural encoding theory as the core of this research. In addition to that, Andersen(2001)’s tripartite analysis of pragmatic markers, as well as conversation analysis, and the Politeness Principle are also adopted to probe into the pragmatic function of reformulation markers. We categorize reformulation markers in terms of contextual assumption and contextual effect, along with categorization of Cuenca and Bach (2007) and Jiang (2009), into three groups: expansion, compression, and modification. We select yejiushishuo (that is to say) and huanjuhuashuo (in other words ), the most versatile markers as our focus. We will analyze these two markers in monologic (non-dynamic) and dialogic (dynamic) text, for the major differences stem from these uses. In order to facilitate this analysis, we formulate an “elicited and spontaneous interview” where the interviewee will be conversing with me in an instructed and spontaneous way. Based on our discovery, the major differences lie between these two are: (dis)agreement with interlocutor, the level of caring about “face”.
Other Identifiers: GN0693240152
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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