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Study of the Scale of Possibility of Probability Adverbs in Mandarin Chinese
|Abstract:||本文探討方式乃先從情態角度切入，統整中西對於情態的討論與分類，從中找出體系中符合漢語討論「可能性」(probability)的對應情態類別，並根據Li and Thompson(1992)、鄧守信(2005)對「可能」的分析，與參考許又尹(2004)漢語能願助動詞(modals)句法結構和葉信鴻(2009)界定漢語助動詞(auxiliary verbs)的檢視標準，將漢語助動詞與可能性副詞區別開來，例如口語中常出現的「可能」實為鄧(1975)動詞三分系統下的狀態動詞，而義務情態的「應該」屬助動詞，故兩者都不列入本文討論範圍，然知識性的「應該」實為副詞，因此列入本文中探討。接著綜合漢語語言學家研究漢語副詞時常舉例詞及參考現代漢語語料庫詞頻，選出「應該、也許、或許、好像、似乎、大概」六個可能性副詞作為研究對象，再分別討論個別句法搭配與特徵、各自核心語義及「可能性」語義來源，最後根據口語語料與網路問卷調查，判定其可能性程度上的高低排序為：應該>似乎>大概>好像>也許>或許。
然而，人們在日常生活表達個人意見時，未必規律地依循個人自主意識，即往往會因為外在因素影響語言使用，因此在界定可能性副詞可能性程度高低之後，將以Brown and Levinson(1987)提出的面子威脅(FTA)理論 (face-threatening act)為參考，討論其語用上的表現。最後檢視目前現行教材現況，綜合上述對語義、句法和語用複雜度的討論，提出現代漢語可能性副詞的教學建議，以供未來教學使用上參考。|
This study first investigated modality of probability adverbs, integrated all discussions and classifications of probability adverbs in different languages, and sorted out a theory of modality which can explain possibility in Mandarin Chinese. Based on analyses of kĕneng in Li and Thompson (1992) and Deng (2005), syntactic analyses of Chinese modals in Hsu (2004), and criteria of auxiliary verbs in Yeh (2009), the study found that the so-called probability adverbs should be distinguished from modal verbs. For instance, the most frequent word kĕnéng ‘can be’ is regarded as stative verb in terms of Deng’s (1975) trichotomy of verbs, and deontic yīnggāi ‘should be’ which is different from epistemic yīnggāi is regarded as auxiliary verb. The two verb cases were not included in the study. The epistemic yīnggāi was discussed because it is regarded as adverb. Then six probability adverbs, yīnggāi, yĕxŭ, hùoxŭ, hăoxìang, sìhū, dàgài, were chosen as stimuli of different trials in an experiment based on studies of Chinese linguists and Modern Chinese corpora. The trials were made up based on etymology and contexts of each word. The results showed that there is a ranking of probability degrees among the six words: yīnggāi> sìhū> dàgài> hăoxìang> yĕxŭ> hùoxŭ. However, when native speakers express their opinions with these words in daily life, they might not only rely on the ranking, but also consider some extra-linguistic factors. Therefore, the Face-Threatening Act (FTA) proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987) was also discussed. At last, the study reviewed current teaching material based on the analyses above, and proposed some advices of probability adverbs for Mandarin Chinese teaching in the future.
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