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|Title:||論泰國學生漢語聲母舌尖音、舌尖後音和舌面音的發音偏誤 -以泰國中華國際學校 11 年級外語班學生為例|
Error Analysis of [ts] [tsˊ] [s] [tʂ] [tʂˊ][ʂ] [ʨ] [ʨˊ][ɕ] from Thai Learners- Case Study of Grade 11 Thai Students of Thai Chinese International School
Thai and Mandarin phonetics
|Abstract:||泰國學生在學習漢語語音的過程中，三組漢語塞擦音為其最大的困難，因為從漢泰語音對比來看，泰語只有一組塞擦音[tʃ] [tʃˊ]位置在漢語舌尖前音[ts] [tsˊ]和舌尖後音[tʂ][tʂˊ]、舌面音[ʨ][ʨˊ]之間，發音位置接近。然而，雖然對泰國學生來說，三組漢語塞擦音是學習難點，但是筆者發現並非每一個與之相拼的音都有問題。漢泰音節組合規則有很大的不同: 漢語三組塞擦音和韻母的組合是互補分布; 舌尖前和舌尖後塞擦音不可以和[i]和其結合韻、[y]和其結合韻相拼，但可以與[u]和其結合韻、空韻[ɿ][ɭ]相拼，舌面塞擦音則相反；泰語塞擦音則是可以和所有韻母組合相拼（泰語無[y]和[ɿ] ][ɭ]），包含和[i]相拼。所以本文旨在觀察泰國學生發三組漢語塞擦音全部的聲韻組合，歸納其偏誤的傾向，最後提出實際且有效的教學方法供教學者參考。
此次研究結果證明並非所有的與之結合的音都有問題。總結如下：１) [tʂ][tʂˊ][ʂ]， [ts] [tsˊ][s]和[ʨ][ʨˊ][ɕ]後接空韻[ɭ] [ɿ]或是一時，問題最多。顯示這兩組音對受試者來說的確是難點。2) 另外，無論是[tʂ][tʂˊ][ʂ]， [ts] [tsˊ][s]和[ʨ][ʨˊ][ɕ]，受試者發後接[ɤn]或[an]的音時，[ɤn][an]會相混3) 而和[ei]或[iɛ]相拼，最沒問題。另外筆者也發現幾個現象：1) [tʂ][tʂˊ][ʂ]， [ts] [tsˊ][s]和[ʨ][ʨˊ][ɕ]這三組音雖然對泰國學生來說是學習的難點，但是從實驗結果以及問卷調查結果，[tʂ][tʂˊ][ʂ] 和[ts] [tsˊ][s]偏誤相關，[ʨ][ʨˊ][ɕ]偏誤則較獨立 2) 舌尖後音[tʂ][tʂˊ][ʂ] 和舌尖音[ts] [tsˊ][s]的發音問題關聯緊密，例如：[tʂ][tʂˊ][ʂ] 常讀成[ts] [tsˊ][s]，翹舌不足 3) 舌面音[ʨ][ʨˊ][ɕ]的發音問題較為獨立，例如：[ʨˊ][ɕ]相混，或是特定韻母偏誤和聲母有關 4) 受試者的送氣塞擦音普遍發得較鬆，阻礙不足，像擦音。針對以上偏誤，筆者提出三大教學建議：首先用學生熟析的語詞舉例子，然後用語音對比的方式教學，調整送氣塞擦音和擦音時只發出氣流。|
Three pairs of affricates in Mandarin, [ts] [tsˊ], [tʂ] [tʂˊ]and [ʨ] [ʨˊ], are most difficult to native Thai learners when they are learning Mandarin consonants. Comparing the consonants between two languages, there is only one pair of affricates in Thai consonants, [tʃ] and [tʃˊ], and its position is between [tʂ] [tʂˊ]and [ʨ] [ʨˊ] of Mandarin. Therefore, it’s complicated for Thai learners to distinguish them. However, from my observation, I found out that Thai learners don’t have every articulation with those three pairs of affricates is wrong, for rules of syllabus combination. in Mandarin, the three affricates with vowels have complementary distribution, which means the retroflex affricates is allowed to be together with [u] and [ɭ], but not with [i] and [y]. in the contrast, the palatal one is allowed to be together with [i] and [y], but not with [u] and [ɭ]. in Thai, however, consonants are allowed to be together with all vowels, excluding [y] and [ɿ] ][ɭ] which doesn’t exist in Thai. For that reason, the research is to investigate all articulation combinations with three pairs of affricates for Thai learners, to draw the conclusion of their errors, and lastly to give teaching strategies to educators for suggestion. The research reveals that not all syllable combinations of [ts] [tsˊ][s], [tʂ] [tʂˊ][ʂ] and [ʨ] [ʨˊ] [ɕ] have errors shown. There are three main results below: 1) Errors shown at times as long as [ts] [tsˊ][s], [tʂ] [tʂˊ][ʂ] and [ʨ] [ʨˊ] [ɕ] are combined with [ɿ] ][ɭ] and [i]. 2) It also happens when [ts] [tsˊ][s], [tʂ] [tʂˊ][ʂ] and [ʨ] [ʨˊ] [ɕ] are combined with [en] and [an]. 3) There’s little error shown when combining with [ei] and [ie]. Meanwhile, there are several phenomenons appeared from the observation: 1) Thai learners are able to tell difference between[ts] [tsˊ][s] , [tʂ] [tʂˊ][ʂ] and [ʨ] [ʨˊ] [ɕ] 2) Errors between [ts] [tsˊ][s] and [tʂ] [tʂˊ][ʂ] are closely related, for example, [tʂ] [tʂˊ][ʂ] sounds like [ts] [tsˊ][s] all the times. 3) Errors of [ʨ] [ʨˊ] [ɕ] are more independent than the other two, for example, difficulty to tell [ʨˊ] and [ɕ], or some errors of [ʨ] [ʨˊ] [ɕ] as consonants is particularly related to specific vowels. 4) Aspirated affricates is not operated tight enough, therefore, they sound like fricatives. Regarding those errors mentioned above, I would like to propose three suggestions that may be helpful in classroom: 1) Make example with materials which students have learnt or familiar with. 2) Then, to compare 3) Ask students only to focus on aspiration while operating aspired affricates and fricatives in order to reduce disturbance of syllables behind.
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