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Titel: 漢字教學的設計研究-以歐美學生為例
Research Design for Chinese Characters Teaching-Western Students as Examples
Autoren: 葉德明
Stichwörter: 漢字教學
Teaching of Chinese Characters
Scheme Theory
Scheme Theory
Error Analysis
Teaching Strategy
Erscheinungsdatum: 2010
Zusammenfassung: 識字能力是獲取知識的一把鑰匙,尤其是在這知識經濟的時代,文字的功能更勝於有聲的語言。漢字認知是漢語能力發展的關鍵,學習漢語「工欲善其事,必先利其器。」漢字認知能力是漢語學習者進入中國語文殿堂的最基礎工具,所以漢字教學是目前漢語教學研究中的重要課題。本文以歐美學生為研究對象,對初級、中級、高級三個階段的教學內容、學習目標、任務、方法等方面,提出一系列針對性強、高效可行的漢字輔助教學範例,以期提供華語文教學同好可茲參考的教材。 本論文的研究架構分為五個步驟進行:第一章是緒論說明研究動機、研究目的、研究背景。第二章是文獻探討,分成三個部分:第一小節介紹漢字本體理論;第二小節探討漢字認知的心理學;第三小節探討漢字教學理論。第三章是研究方法,首先以問卷調查學習者的學習動機;其次是蒐集初、中、高三個等級學生的偏誤語料,並加以分析統整發現結果;其後再從實務教學中觀察了解學習者的思維過程與困難點。在這一系列的探討中對漢字教學做全面性的反省。 本研究的主旨是要設計一個漢字教學的教材,經過行動研究的反省與修訂後,於第四章研擬教學範例及驗證成果。初級教學內容先讓學習者掌握語音、語義的聽覺認知,再以大量隨文識字建立字感,然後學習構字率高的獨體字的筆畫和書寫順序。中、高級是以認知心理學的圖式架構理論為主要教學策略,充分運用意符、音符之形素關係的聯系而進行系統化的教學,以形符類推字義,以聲符聚集字群,橫向發展字族及詞群的學習,同時辨析形似字、同音字、引申的字義,讓學生從語素了解漢語構詞的特點,由此逐層累進漢字的能力,同時也對漢字運用的整體認知(本義到引申義、成語、慣用語)有了更全方位的了解。最後根據羅伯特.加涅(1985)所提出的九大教學事件,設計一個初級教案,經過實驗性的施測後,於第五章檢討反省,並提出對未來教學的建議。
The perception’s ability of Chinese characters has been always played an important role in obtaining knowledge, in particular in the contemporary time. The cognition of Chinese characters is the key factor to the development of Chinese language’s capability. The ability of Chinese characters’ cognition is the basic tool for Chinese learners to have access to Chinese language. Therefore, Chinese characters’ teaching is one of the most essential topics among Chinese teaching’s researches. In this thesis, the research objects are Western Students. According to teaching content, learning goal, assignment and methods for the levels of beginners, intermediate’s and the advance’s learners, there are a series of efficient Chinese teaching aid are suggested which can be used as the reference for the Chinese teachers. The research structure of this thesis is designed and based on five parts: the first chapter explains the research’s motivation, research’s purpose and its background, while the second chapter focuses on the reference review which is divided into three parts: the first paragraph introduces the theory of Chinese characters; the second one goes on with the discussion of the psychological cognition of Chinese characters, while the last one aims at the description of the theory of Chinese characters’ teaching. The third chapter is describing the research methods. Firstly, questionnaires are used in order to understand the learners’ motivation. Secondly, language errors of the beginners, the intermediate’s and the advance’s learners are collected and analyzed. At last, the thinking process and the difficulties of the learners are under observation in the daily teaching experience. The motive of this research is to design a Chinese characters’ teaching materials. Therefore, the fourth chapter is to design teaching exemplification and to examine their outcomes at the end. In terms of teaching content for the beginners, the cognition’s hearing of speech sound and speech meaning are designed to be acquired in the first place. And then with the better perception of Chinese characters, the learners are expected to learn the sequence of strokes and writing of those words which can be derivated easily and built up more words. At the level of the intermediate and the advanced course design, the connecting relationship between the semantic symbol and phonetic symbol are fully used for its systematic teaching. And the main teaching strategy is based on the theory of cognition psychology and the theory of scheme structure. At the same time, differentiating words with the similar morphological features, Homophones and the derivate meanings is also the main concern in this chapter. It aims at helping learners to build up their capability of Chinese characters and to have better command of using Chinese characters, such as idioms, derivate meanings and phrases. At the end, based on Robert M. Gagne’s(1985) teaching model “Nine Events of Instruction”, a teaching plan for beginners is designed and practiced in the class. In the fifth chapter the designed teaching plan and its outcome are under examination and discussion. In the end, there are some suggestions which are proposed for the teaching in the future.
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