Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86254
Title: 華語演講的語步分析及其教學應用
A Study on Rhetorical Moves of Chinese Public Speeches and Pedagogical Applications
Authors: 謝佳玲
Hsieh, Chia-Ling
吳欣儒
Wu, Xin-Ru
Keywords: 華語演講
語篇結構
語步分析
策略
華語演講教學
Chinese Public Speech
discourse structure
move analysis
strategy
teaching Chinese public speaking
Issue Date: 2017
Abstract: 演講是講者為達成特定的溝通目標,面對觀眾公開發表見解或感受的一種溝通活動。這種溝通活動構成獨特語體,在語篇結構方面具有異於其他語體的特徵。目前文獻已歸納英語演講普遍採用的訊息組織模式,結論對英語演講教學亦產生實質助益。相較之下,華語這方面的研究及其教學應用相對匱乏,因此,本文以臺灣教育部2011年至2015年舉辦的《全國語文競賽》為研究樣本,選取高中組演說獲獎作品共30則,採用語步分析為主、後設論述分析為輔的研究模式,分析講者如何選用及組織訊息,構成具說服力的演講,最後根據研究結果設計華語演講教學的教材範例。 分析結果顯示,華語演講的典型結構是由五個語步組成,語步一是導言,語步二至四是比重均等的三面向申論,語步五是結論。導言與結論各有六種可用策略,且一般皆由兩項策略組成。導言最常見的組合是以講述名人的故事開場,後接用以承上啟下的策略,這個組合能幫助講者引起觀眾的興趣,並順暢地開啟申論。結論則偏好引用名言佳句或重述前文故事,再總結全篇主旨,藉此重申講者立場,強化演講對觀眾的影響力。而申論的語步共有九種可用策略,平均使用三種策略,出現率最高的組合是先分述該項論點,接著講述名人或個人故事,最後總結該項重點。由此可見,一篇受到肯定的華語演講通常先破題,接著採用相似的結構,從三個不同的角度分別論證中心思想,最後呼應導言,完成首尾連貫。而在後設論述分析方面,分析結果顯示策略的溝通目標與標記的溝通功能存在對應關係,亦即各種策略展現對特定標記的使用偏好。 以上結果表明華語演講在篇章組織上形成相似且可辨識的文本群體,驗證具有相同溝通目標的語篇群體展現出類似的修辭手段,然而,本研究亦發現不同於英語文獻的結論。演講是發生於真實時間的口語獨白,因此文獻一般認為這類語體在修辭結構上展露靈活性,難以歸納典型架構,但即席演說的結構卻相當工整固定,這個差異可能源自於準備時間的長短。本文最後應用結果於華語演講教學,為華語學生歸納演講語篇在語篇結構及語言形式的表達定式,並據此設計教學材料與方法的實作範例,以提升研究結果在語言研究與教學的價值。
Public speaking is a kind of communicative event in which a speaker communicates information to a group of listeners in order to achieve specific purposes. Previous researchers investigating English speech have regarded public speaking as a unique genre of spoken discourse and described several distinct features of its rhetorical structure. The results of these previous studies indicate that English speakers organize the structure of information to fulfill their communicative purposes and these and other findings have contributed to the teaching of English public speaking. However, up until this point Chinese public speaking has received little attention by researchers. Thus, the present study, a close inspection of Chinese public speech through move analysis, has aimed to: 1) examine the types of moves used in Chinese impromptu speeches; 2) uncover linguistic realizations of moves and strategies; and 3) generalize their typical structural features. Thirty (30) prize-winning speeches given at the 2011 to 2015 National Language Contest held by the Taiwan Ministry of Education were collected for analysis. The typical structure of Chinese public speeches was uncovered comprising of five obligatory moves including Introduction (Move 1), Body 1 (Move 2), Body 2 (Move 3), Body 3 (Move 4) and Conclusion (Move 5). Although it was revealed that speakers had six strategies at their disposal for both the Introduction and Conclusion, speakers generally only applied two of the six. The most frequently used strategy combination for the Introduction was found to be the telling of stories about famous people prior to forming a connecting link between the preceding and the following discourse. This strategy sequence can function to arouse audience interest and transition to the Body of the speech. In the Conclusion, speakers preferred quoting a well-known saying and then reaffirming the thesis of the speech. This combination of strategies help speakers reinforce their stance and strengthen its influence on the audience. In Body 1 to Body 3, nine strategies were identified of which only three were generally applied. The most frequent combination of strategies used was first the rephrasing of the thesis followed by providing supporting details through the retelling of a well-known story or a personal anecdote and finally stating the conclusion. The above findings suggest that the structural features of Chinese speech are regular and recognizable, which lends credibility to the claim that texts with similar communicative purposes share similarities in terms of their rhetorical characteristics. However, public speaking occurs in real time and at times can result in sequencing of moves allowing for a great amount of flexibility. The present study presents different accounts. This dissertation research results can be applied to the teaching of Chinese public speaking by providing instruction on how to organize a speech according to the conventional rhetorical structure(s) written using commonly occurring sentence patterns. The study hopes to provide insights into the analysis of Chinese public speeches and the teaching of Chinese public speaking.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G080080001I%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86254
Other Identifiers: G080080001I
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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