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Genesis, evolution and perception of loanwords: a case study of the “leftover women” concept
|Abstract:||2003 年日本小說家酒井順子出版的《敗犬的遠吠》中將大齡未婚女性定義 為敗犬（「負け犬」），並認為是少子化社會的誘因。爰此，「大齡單身女性」在 社會受眾中被區分出來。流傳至中國後，迅速被主流媒體接納。
中國教育部在 2007 年將「剩女」一詞納入《新華字典》，暗指「被剩下的」。在中國的媒體場域中廣泛建構了對「剩女」概念的論述，媒體將女性未婚狀態歸因於「對於婚姻伴侶存在過高的期待與標準」。媒體將立場擺至男性視角下，她們成了「被人挑剩下」的人，並被這種男性中心的文化冠之以「剩女」的稱號，並將其整合進官方認定的正式話語體系中，因而成為一種「既定」的「話語秩序」。
本文採用文本分析與深度訪談的研究方法，探討外來語的演化過程，並以「剩女」一詞為例，具體剖析外來語的演化過程與特點以及影響。並對15位具有性別意識的大齡未婚女性進行身份認知訪談，、引用法國學者 Bourdieu 對於「生存心態」、「資本」與「象徵暴力」的論述，探討該群體在「剩女」論述場域下的主體性。研究者從「剩女」的壓力來源、對「剩女」的自我詮釋、「剩女」的行動策略三個面向進行研究探討。
In 2003, the Japanese novelist Sakai Junko published the bark of underdogs in which the older unmarried women were defined as “underdogs”(「負け犬」) and considered to be a cause for the low-birth rate society. In this case, "older single women" past tense another social component. This term was spread to China, and rapidly accepted by the mainstream media. In 2007, the Chinese Ministry of Education incorporated the word "leftover woman" into the Xinhua Dictionary, which implies “a remaining woman”. In the Chinese media, the concept of "leftover women" Has been extensively broadened, and "high expectations and standards for marriages" attributed attributed to unmarried women. Under a male-dominated perspective, they became“the women who were left after the rest had been taken”, and called “leftover women” by the reflected man-centered culture. It was officially integrated into the formal discourse system, and thus became the "established” “discourse order”. This paper investigates the evolution process of loanwords by using the methods of content analysis and in-depth interviews. Taking the concept of “leftover women“ as a case study, it concretely analyses the evolution, the specifities as well as the influence of loanwords. Fifteen older gender-aware women were interviewed as well. This study quotes the French scholar Bourdieu and explores the subject of "leftover women" in terms of "survival mentality", "capital" and "symbolic violence". It inquires into three aspects: the origins of the “leftover women’s” pressure, whether they regard themselves as such and their reaction to it. This study finds that the image of the "leftover women" constructed by media reports not only is directly applied to unmarried women, but also the reports about "leftover women" shape other society members' stereotypes about unmarried women, and eventually it entered controlled common structure. In terms of marriage choice, " leftover women" often have a capital above average, but do not possess the symbolic capital. They also lost the ability to use language symbols, and thus can not avoid the rule of the symbolic violence.
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