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Title: 句法啟動對晚期二語學習者中介語在不同延遲時間下的影響--以漢語把字句為例
The Influence of Structural Priming to Late Second Language Learner’s Interlanguage in Different Delay Conditions: Taking Mandarin Chinese Ba-constructions as an Example
Authors: 徐東伯
Hsu, Dong-Bo
Yu, Sheng-Han
Keywords: 句法啟動
Structural priming
Verb-complement structure
Syntax processing
Issue Date: 2017
Abstract:   本論文的研究目的之一,是藉由句法啟動(structural priming)來探究二語學習者心智中的句法處理機制與語意處理機制之間的關係。過往的句法啟動研究多集中於母語者或早期雙語者上,針對晚期二語者的研究較少。本文延續Hsu and Lin (2014)所發現的晚期中文二語學習者在中高語言水平時能夠產生把字句/主動句轉換的句法啟動的結果,進一步探討在晚期二語者身上發現的句法啟動,是否能如母語者一般持續一星期(Kaschak, Kutta,& Schatschneider, 2012),並以此推論在晚期二語者心智中句法處理機制是否獨立於語意處理機制外運作(Bock, 1995; Chang, Dell, & Bock, 2006; V. S. Ferreira & Slevc, 2007),又或者是如Pickering and Branigan (1998)所假設般由語意處理機制管轄。   本論文的研究目的之二是藉由句法啟動來探討中文中的簡單動補結構(e.g., 吃光、拿走、趕跑)是一種構詞結構或是一種句法結構。過往文獻對此議題討論主要以語感及結構分析為主,缺乏心理語言學上的實驗證據支持,因此本論文期待以此提供相關證據。   本論文的研究問題有二:第一、晚期二語者在把字句與主動句之間的選擇偏好是否會受到啟動句的影響而改變?這樣的改變是否會隨著時間經過而減弱,甚至消失?第二、在第一個研究問題的結果顯示存在長久持續的句法啟動效果的前提下,晚期二語者的簡單動補結構的偏好是否也能產生句法啟動的效果?其效果的持續性及強弱為何?   受試對象為中高級晚期中文二語學習者,以圖片描述、完成句子殘幹、語句判斷為研究工具,並以記憶任務為包裝,以避免受試者察覺實驗目標而干擾實驗結果,希望受試者收到啟動句後是在無意識的情況下改變他在把字句/主動句以及動補結構使用上的偏好。   實驗結果顯示,晚期中文二語學習者收到把字句啟動句後,確實會增加他對把字句使用的偏好,而且這樣的效果即使過了一個星期仍能顯著存在。這樣的結果顯示句法處理機制具有與語意處理機制不同的持續性,支持其獨立存在的可能。在動補結構上,受試者在收到帶有動補結構的啟動句後,確實提升了其使用補語的偏好,產生句法啟動現象,並持續達一星期。這樣的結果顯示簡單動補結構受到句法機制管轄,支持簡單動補結構是由兩個獨立詞彙構成的詞組的解釋。
The first purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between structural processing and semantic processing in late second language learner’s minds by structural priming. The previous literature on structural priming focuses mostly on native speakers and early bilinguals, with only several studies that focus on late second language learners. Following the finding of Hsu and Lin (2014) that late Mandarin second language learners do demonstrate structural priming with the SVO-BA alternation, this study further investigated whether the structural priming of late second language learners could persist as long as that of native speakers or not (Kaschak, Kutta,& Schatschneider, 2012). The result suggested that do structural processing working independently of semantic processing in the mental representations of late second language learners (Bock, 1995; Chang, Dell, & Bock, 2006; V. S. Ferreira & Slevc, 2007)? Or structural processing is only a part of semantic processing as Pickering and Branigan (1998) have? The second purpose of this study was to investigate that Mandarin simple verb-complement structure (e.g., 拿走(take away)、趕跑(chase run)) should be classified as a morphologically defined unit or a syntactically defined unit. Most of the literature of Mandarin simple verb-complement structure in the past only relied on informants’ intuition or structure analyzing. This study aimed to provide psycholingustics evidences using structural priming. The two main research questions were as follows: (1) Do structural priming affect late Mandarin second language learners’ tendency of SVO-BA constructions? How long will the priming persist? Will the strength of structural priming decay, or even disappear as time goes on? (2) If the result of first research indicates that late Mandarin second language learners do exist long-term structural priming, then can Mandarin simple verb-complement structure trigger structural priming? What is the magnitude of structural priming and how long will it last that is triggered by the verb-complement? Participants are high-intermediate level late Mandarin second language learners. The research methods included picture describing, sentence stem completion, grammaticality judgement. The participants also received memorize tasks which were designed to misdisguised participants about the purpose of the study. The result showed that when late Mandarin second language learners were primed, they did change their SVO-BA tendency, and the structural priming persisted longer than one week. This result supported the claim that structural processing working independently of semantic processing. The result of Mandarin simple verb-complement structure showed that structural priming was triggered by receiving priming sentences with complement. The results that structural priming could persist longer than one week indicated that Mandarin simple verb-complement structure is a phrase structure.
Other Identifiers: G060284005I
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