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Title: 漢語「固然」的篇章、語用研究與教學啟示
A Discourse and Pragmatic Analysis of the Chinese Adverb Guran and Its Pedagogical Implications
Authors: 陳俊光
Chen, Jyun-Gwang
Huang, Hsiao-Ting
Keywords: 讓步
end focus
contrastive focus
counter- expectation
Issue Date: 2018
Abstract: 本論文以 Halliday(1985)的概念、篇章與人際三方面以真實語料進行驗證,探討現代漢語副詞「固然」在語義、篇章、語用層面的語言現象。 本論文建立在中文詞彙特性速描系統與聯合知識庫之上,以語言事實作為研究之本,各取語料庫兩百筆資料,以真實語料分析來討論「固然」之使用的樣貌。 從篇章銜接角度來看,「固然」傾向出現在主語與謂語之間,以句內範距為無標形式,句外範距為有標形式,前者範距小為局部銜接,帶出句尾焦點,後者範距大,為整體連接,帶出對比焦點。 從篇章連貫角度看,「固然後主句」與下文前景句的語義關係,以「進一步陳述」的語義關係分布比例最多,表示下文經常是接續「固然後主句」順向闡述延伸的。其次有「立論關係」,再其次為「轉折關係」,最後是「無下文」。 語用功能方面,「固然」是評價情態詞,語用功能為反預期,而最常與「固然後主句」與「固然從句」共現的情態詞為表真偽類的認知情態詞,與兩分句共現的情態詞類型有類似的分佈比例高低,皆為認知情態共現率最高,其次為義務情態,再次為動力情態,最後為評價情態。 有鑑於現行教材內容,多以單一句子為說明的例句,而忽略語境和語用要素。因此,我們以帶有篇章上下文的實際語料為研究篇幅,以期更清楚詮釋「固然」的使用情形,藉由篇章及語用方面的研究成果來補足教材中解釋不足之處,使華語教師在教學上,以及華語學習者在學習上,皆有清楚可遵循的原則。
The present study adopts the theoretical framework of Halliday’s metafunctions of language, encompassing ideational, textual, and interpersonal functions (Halliday, 1985) in order to examine the adverb guran at both the discourse and pragmatic aspects. This study is substantiated by empirical data, composed of 400 tokens of data from two sets of corpora in Taiwan, in which 200 tokens are collected from Word Sketch Engine and the other 200 tokens from UDN data. With regard to the cohesion at the discourse level, guran can serve as either an intra-sentential or inter-sentential connector, the first occurring when guran appears between the subject and the predicate, whereas the latter occurring when guran appears in the sentence-initial position. In this study, guran mostly appears after the subject. In terms of focus, intra-sentential guran establishes a smaller discourse scope, producing an end focus. Inter-sentential guran, on the other hand, establishes a larger discourse scope, producing a contrastive focus. In terms of the coherence at the discourse level, the main clause of a complex sentence formed with guran is most frequently used to elaborate on additional details of the previous point. At the pragmatic level, guran serves as evaluative modality and function as a counter-expectation marker. This study further compares the occurrence of modal adverbs and verbs in the subordinating guran clauses and its main clauses with the majority of both clauses falling under the category of epistemic modality. At the pedagogical level, the author reviews four Chinese language textbooks and uses the results of this study as a basis to provide implications for Chinese language teachers. Most L2 Chinese textbooks reviewed have been sentence-specific to condense guran into a single all-encompassing rule. However, a more comprehensive understanding of the Chinese adverb guran involves a multiplicity of factors, including discourse context and pragmatic situations. Finally, the findings of this study are provided in the hope to provide some guidelines for Chinese language teaching and learning.
Other Identifiers: G060284004I
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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