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Chinese Listening and Speaking: Curriculum Design Based on the Competence-oriented Approach --Action Research on Intermediate-Low Level of German Students in a Sinology Department
Chinese listening and speaking pedagogy
研究結果有三：第一，德國聽說教學存在著教材不適切性、學生使用目標語的機會少、課上發言量不足、課堂活動緊縮和評量方式單一化等問題。對此，本研究提出「真實聽力材料選用原則及步驟」、「教學設置的『翻轉』」、由學生引導討論的「主持人活動」模式及「期末報告設計原則」等教學設計；第二，德國學生偏好「自由表達」的口語活動形式。聽力活動的接受類型較為多元，包括聽寫和聽力問答；從教學者層面出發，課程設計需融入能力指標針對基礎進階級所制定的各個面向。第三，本研究以「跨文化溝通能力」為核心，將《中文聽說讀寫Level 2 Part 1》作為教學材料，提出符合基礎進階級水平能力指標的聽說教學大綱及單課教案設計。|
The aim of this study is to design an intermediate-low Chinese listening and speaking course integrated with a competence-oriented approach. It was inspired by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR) and Handreichung für das Fach Chinesisch (Teaching Guidelines for the Subject of Chinese) from the school from Hesse Ministry of Culture, both of which evaluate different levels of foreign language proficiency. In contrast, one of the main teaching methods at college remains to be the method of grammar translation, which does not stand in correlation with the current principles. However, in recent years “competence-oriented teaching” has been actively promoted by European foreign language education, cultivating learners’ competency of communication in the target language and those of problem-solving in appropriate language forms when facing cross-cultural conflicts. This thesis discusses the difficulties that German students have encountered in acquiring listening and speaking skills in the non-Chinese environment and the considerations that teachers take in designing the listening-speaking curriculum and arranging classroom activities in response to these difficulties. This study applies survey, developmental, and action research in its methodology. The participants in this study were the 14 students registered for Chinese Conversation III of the Sinology department at Trier University in 2015. The data collected include a questionnaire on learner needs, a course syllabus, lesson plans, and student course evaluation. Their analysis is used as a basis to optimize the listening-speaking curriculum. The results yield three major findings: Firstly, the four problems of listening- speaking courses in Germany are the inadequacy of textbooks, lack of real language situations and opportunities for target language practice, insufficient time for implementing all classroom tasks, and a shortage of dynamic formative assessments. In order to solve them, the author proposes the following principles: selecting authentic listening materials, together with steps towards the implementation of such a principle; the Flipped Classroom; the “Moderator’s mode: discussions led by students”; and the design of oral report projects. Secondly, German students prefer “free talking” oral exercises. They display relatively wide acceptance of listening exercises of different varieties. In terms of teachers, instead of focusing on some specific competences, the syllabus design should contain all the components that an intermediate-low level student requires. Thirdly, this study provides an example of a reformed listening-speaking course syllabus with optimized lesson planning, focusing on “intercultural communication competences” with the texts of Integrated Chinese Level 2 Part 1.
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