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Title: 能力導向框架下基礎進階級華語聽說教學研究—以德國漢學系學生為例
Chinese Listening and Speaking: Curriculum Design Based on the Competence-oriented Approach --Action Research on Intermediate-Low Level of German Students in a Sinology Department
Authors: 曾金金
Tseng, Chin-Chin
Chien, Juo-Ping
Keywords: 華語聽說教學
Chinese listening and speaking pedagogy
German students
intermediate-low level
Issue Date: 2017
Abstract: 近年來,歐洲外語教育致力發展「能力導向式課堂教學(Kompetenzorientierter Unterricht)」,培養學習者以目標語進行溝通交流,及面臨跨文化衝突時,能用得體的語言形式來解決問題。《歐洲共同語文參考架構》和黑森邦針對中學華語教育制定的《漢語教學大綱教師指南》皆循此原則,詳盡描述各層級學習者所需習得的語言能力。然而,大學漢學系的教學模式仍多以文法翻譯法為主,未能與現行教育方針接軌。故研究華語聽說教學如何與能力導向教學法相結合為本研究重心之一。 本研究採用「調查研究法」和「行動研究法」,旨在探討德國大學生在非華語環境下培養聽說能力所面臨的難點,教師對其因應之聽力會話課程設計與課室活動安排的考量。研究對象為參與2015年聽力會話課(三)的漢學系學生,共計14名。研究過程所蒐集的各項資料包括:課前需求問卷、教師設計的教學大綱、單課教案及學習者課後反饋;於研究階段進行分析,透過反思教學過程作為優化聽說課程設計的基礎。 研究結果有三:第一,德國聽說教學存在著教材不適切性、學生使用目標語的機會少、課上發言量不足、課堂活動緊縮和評量方式單一化等問題。對此,本研究提出「真實聽力材料選用原則及步驟」、「教學設置的『翻轉』」、由學生引導討論的「主持人活動」模式及「期末報告設計原則」等教學設計;第二,德國學生偏好「自由表達」的口語活動形式。聽力活動的接受類型較為多元,包括聽寫和聽力問答;從教學者層面出發,課程設計需融入能力指標針對基礎進階級所制定的各個面向。第三,本研究以「跨文化溝通能力」為核心,將《中文聽說讀寫Level 2 Part 1》作為教學材料,提出符合基礎進階級水平能力指標的聽說教學大綱及單課教案設計。
The aim of this study is to design an intermediate-low Chinese listening and speaking course integrated with a competence-oriented approach. It was inspired by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR) and Handreichung für das Fach Chinesisch (Teaching Guidelines for the Subject of Chinese) from the school from Hesse Ministry of Culture, both of which evaluate different levels of foreign language proficiency. In contrast, one of the main teaching methods at college remains to be the method of grammar translation, which does not stand in correlation with the current principles. However, in recent years “competence-oriented teaching” has been actively promoted by European foreign language education, cultivating learners’ competency of communication in the target language and those of problem-solving in appropriate language forms when facing cross-cultural conflicts. This thesis discusses the difficulties that German students have encountered in acquiring listening and speaking skills in the non-Chinese environment and the considerations that teachers take in designing the listening-speaking curriculum and arranging classroom activities in response to these difficulties. This study applies survey, developmental, and action research in its methodology. The participants in this study were the 14 students registered for Chinese Conversation III of the Sinology department at Trier University in 2015. The data collected include a questionnaire on learner needs, a course syllabus, lesson plans, and student course evaluation. Their analysis is used as a basis to optimize the listening-speaking curriculum. The results yield three major findings: Firstly, the four problems of listening- speaking courses in Germany are the inadequacy of textbooks, lack of real language situations and opportunities for target language practice, insufficient time for implementing all classroom tasks, and a shortage of dynamic formative assessments. In order to solve them, the author proposes the following principles: selecting authentic listening materials, together with steps towards the implementation of such a principle; the Flipped Classroom; the “Moderator’s mode: discussions led by students”; and the design of oral report projects. Secondly, German students prefer “free talking” oral exercises. They display relatively wide acceptance of listening exercises of different varieties. In terms of teachers, instead of focusing on some specific competences, the syllabus design should contain all the components that an intermediate-low level student requires. Thirdly, this study provides an example of a reformed listening-speaking course syllabus with optimized lesson planning, focusing on “intercultural communication competences” with the texts of Integrated Chinese Level 2 Part 1.
Other Identifiers: G060184035I
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