Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86139
Title: 華日回應批評之語用研究
A Pragmatic Research of Responses to Criticism in Mandarin and Japanese
Authors: 謝佳玲
Hsieh, Chia-Ling
李先祐
Lee, Hsien-Yo
Keywords: 回應批評
語用
社會地位
性別
華語教學
respond to criticism
pragmatic
social status
gender
Mandarin teaching
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 本研究以跨語言視角,討論華日回應批評之語用研究。批評常見於人際溝通中,是談話交流時常用的言語行為。由於批評行為具有互動性強、複雜度高之特性,故現有研究中,以批評為主題之研究仍在少數,而針對回應批評之言語行為研究則更少。再者,過去關於回應批評之相關文獻,大多僅從社會地位的視角切入,仍未見回應批評策略之研究。有鑑於此,本文除探討華日回應批評言語行為語用策略之運用情形外,並加入批評主題、社會權勢、性別因素等因素,檢視此三類變因與回應批評策略的關連,並歸納華日異同。 本研究以兩份話語完成測驗之問卷為研究工具。問卷(一)的實施目的為先行研究,探究華日母語者回應批評之特質;問卷(二)是奠基於問卷(一)的結果修改而成,其實施目的是為了解華日母語者實施批評之方式。兩份問卷在實施的時程上有先後順序,內容方面亦密切相關。研究結果顯示,華日回應批評之回應策略可分為他人取向及自我取向兩種主體策略,其下又再包括道歉、自承、感謝、承諾、解釋、詢問以及請求等七種核心策略,並搭配應答及贊同兩類輔助策略。華日回應批評的策略組成模式,均偏好將道歉策略置於回應批評的起始處。然而不同的是,華語習慣於結尾處置入承諾策略,起始與結尾中間可再另外搭配其他核心策略,而日語則是將承諾策略直接置於起始處之後,再於結尾處搭配其他核心策略。 華日回應批評的策略分布共性在於,面對社會權勢高的批評者,都傾向使用承諾策略,面對社會權勢低的批評者,則都偏好使用道歉策略。而華日回應批評之策略差異則表現在批評主題以及回應者性別的變因上。首先,當批評主題為技能表現時,華語傾向使用承諾策略,日語則偏好使用請求策略;當批評主題為內在特徵時,華語傾向使用道歉策略,而日語則偏好使用承諾策略。由此顯示兩個語言的母語者,都偏好使用自我取向主體策略,然而依據不同主題,採取的具體策略也有不同。其次,華語男性、女性面對批評時,都一致傾向使用承諾策略;而日語男女兩性則呈現分歧現象,男性母語者常使用道歉策略,女性母語者則較常使用承諾策略。此為華語及日語母語者在回應批評時呈現之差異。 本文最後以研究成果為依據,檢視現行於台灣最常常使用的兩套華語教學教材,並分析教材中與回應批評相關的教學部分。再根據自身研究結果,設計以語言意識結合語言訓練之教案,希望能為華語回應批評之語言教學帶來貢獻。
In this study, we discuss the response to criticism in Mandarin and Japanese through a cross-language perspective. Criticism is a common speech act in a conversation. Due to the interactivity and high complexity of criticism, the existing research that study the criticism is still a minority, and the studies in response to criticism are even much fewer. Furthermore, most of the literature of response to criticism only discuss from the perspective of social status, so the research strategy in response to criticism is relatively rare. In the light of this, in addition to the discussion of the pragmatic strategies for response to criticism in Mandarin and Japanese, this study also included three factors: criticism subject, social status, and gender in order to examine the relationship between these factors and response strategies. Finally, a summary of the similarities and differences between Mandarin and Japanese will be displayed. In this research, there are two Discourse Completion Test Questionnaires. The "Questionnaire 1" is a prior research to explore the traits of the response to criticism from Mandarin Chinese and Japanese native speakers, and the "Questionnaires 2" is revised based on the result of "Questionnaires 1". The purpose of "Questionnaires 2" is to investigate how Mandarin Chinese and Japanese native speaker respond to criticism. Two questionnaires are implemented in an order, and the content of the two questionnaires are also closely related. The result shows that a response to a criticism can be divided into two different "Behavior Subjects", which are "Orientation to Other" and "Self-Orientation". Under the two categories, there are seven "Core Strategies" (apologize, admit, appreciate, commit, explain, ask, and request) and two "Subsidy Strategies" (respond and approve). The commonality of the response to a criticism in Mandarin and Japanese is that regardless of the social status of the hearer, they usually take "commit" as a response. On the other hand, the differences of the response to a criticism between Mandarin and Japanese can be observed in criticism subject and gender. First, when the criticism subject is "Skill Performance", Mandarin Chinese native speaker would take "commit" as a strategy to respond, while Japanese would prefer "request". Besides, when the criticism is "Inherent Characteristic", Mandarin Chinese native speaker would take "apologize" while Japanese would take "commit" as a strategy. Also, both male and female Chinese native speakers prefer "commit" as a response strategy to a criticism, while a male Japanese would take "apologize" and a female Japanese would take "commit". Finally, based on the results of this research, this study also reviews the two Mandarin Teaching materials most commonly used in Taiwan and analyzes the parts related to the response to criticism in the textbooks. Apart from the analysis, lesson plans combining language training with language awareness were designed according to the findings, hoping to contribute to the Mandarin Teaching of response to criticism.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G060184001I%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/86139
Other Identifiers: G060184001I
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