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Titel: 安置及教養機構離院個案就業歷程之社會排除經驗
Care leavers’ social exclusion experiences during employment course
Autoren: 彭淑華
Stichwörter: 機構安置
residential placement
after care
care leavers
employment course
social exclusion
Erscheinungsdatum: 2012
Zusammenfassung: 本研究目的是藉由離院個案就業歷程的探討,描繪出個案離院前的就業想像與準備,並進一步深入探究其就業歷程中所遭遇的社會排除經驗,及其因應排除的策略。在研究方法上,採取質性研究,針對九位曾因家庭失功能而進入機構安置者、現已結束機構安置,處於20歲以上至31歲以下青年階段之離院個案進行深度訪談,獲致研究結果如下: 一、安置準備階段的排除:安置服務在回應本研究離院個案的就業需求上,並無系統性地預先規劃與設計,且就業準備相當有限,尤其在職業性向探索與生涯規劃討論等面向較顯缺乏,致使其在不同性質的工作職場中一再轉換。 二、轉銜階段的排除:在不充足的準備下離院,使得個案離院前對於就業的認知與想法,即為經由就業是否可得到穩定的經濟來源,能否透過就業支應基本生活需要,此外未有其他過多的想像。顯示缺乏轉銜機制的緩衝與協助,離院個案一旦踏入社會,便得獨自承擔自立生活的種種壓力,因而不得不立即就業,使得生活機會與發展受到某種程度的限制。 三、進入勞動市場的排除:離院個案進入勞動市場即面臨多面向的社會排除現象-勞動市場的排除、教育機會的排除、就業政策的排除、家庭資源的排除以及個人條件的排除。 四、克服排除的策略:離院個案要擺脫就業歷程中各形式的排除處境,所採取的因應方式主要是依靠自己來解決;其次,則是尋求外在資源的協助,值得注意的是,他們社會支持網絡的機會與資源明顯不足。 根據上述的研究發現,本研究分別針對政府與雇主提出建議。在政府方面,提出制定完備的離院照顧政策、加強宣導民間企業提供離院個案穩定的就業機會,以及不安全就業的權益保障等建議;在雇主方面,提出改善對離院個案的錯誤認知,以及推行師徒制等建議。期政府與雇主共同努力,為離院個案建構友善的就業環境,使他們能有一個安全、公平、有發展性的勞動空間。
This research was designed to explore care leavers’ employment course; understand care leavers’ experience of social exclusion and the solution. This qualitative research targeted the nine care leavers at the age of 20 to 31, who were from dysfunctional families. Also, the qualitative data was conducted the in-depth interview. The results are as follows: I. The placement and social exclusion: Undesigned placement services don’t meet care leavers’ needs in research. For example, the care leavers lack information about career counseling; therefore, they may feel frustrated and often change jobs. They should gain a fresh prospective on career and figure out where they want to go in the future. II. Transition and social exclusion: If care leavers don’t know they are not well prepared for work, they will just focus on clothing and feeding rather than self-achievement. Moreover, they will suffer much pressure in life and lifestyle becomes a vicious circle. They will always worry about financial problems. III. The labor market and social exclusion: Once care leavers step into the work places, they will suffer pressure from any aspects of social exclusion such as labor market, education opportunities, employment policy, family resources and individuals. IV. The policy of against social exclusion: All care leavers need to do is to be independent. Moreover, they can seek assistance outside, but these resources and connection are not clear for them. According to the findings of the research, the researcher made a suggestion to the government and employers respectively. The new direction for the government was that proposing a complete policy which expected to have well welfare for care leavers, to advocate private enterprises to generate jobs, and to protect their rights at work. On the other hand, it is necessary to break employers’ stereotypes of care leavers and to carry out the mentor system. Therefore, we really hope the public open mind to care leavers and cooperate to create a more work-friendly space for them.
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