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Title: 政府科層組織與社會工作專業之結合─以台北縣市區域社福中心為例
The Combination of Government Bureaucratic Organization and the Social Work Profession ─ Taipei City and County Regional Social Welfare Centre as an example
Authors: 沈慶盈
Ching-Ying Shen
Wan-Ting Lee
Keywords: 政府科層組織
government bureaucratic organization
social work professional
regional social welfare center
reaction and adjustment
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: 隨著福利國家的來臨,社會工作者受僱為政府部門員工的機會也跟著上升。在政府科層組織中,透過制度化程序的運作,確實較可保證服務的充裕性與有效性,但同時科層化的反功能也不可避免地發生,甚而影響到服務的功效。政府科層組織與社會工作專業之結合乃是勢在必行,因此社會工作者面對政府科層組織對社會工作專業之影響時,所產生的因應與調適便成為一個值得重視之議題! 目前台灣雖許多論述皆提及科層組織對社會工作專業之影響與衝突,但實際為文討論或進行研究可謂少之又少。據此,本研究之目的為:(1)瞭解區域社福中心社會工作實務之施行。(2)探索政府科層組織對社會工作專業影響之面貌。(3)探討社會工作者面臨政府科層組織與社會工作專業衝突之調適與因應策略。(4)根據研究結果提出建議,作為未來政府科層組織與社會工作專業結合之參考。 在研究方法與設計上,採取質性研究方法,研究對象為台北縣市區域社福中心之社會工作者。抽樣方式選擇立意選樣策略,以提供深度與多元社會實狀廣度之資料,最後獲得8位訪談對象。資料收集方法以深度訪談法為主,採取半結構化的訪談方式進行,資料蒐集時間為2010年6月至10月。 本研究主要發現為:(1)雖然區域社福中心確具科層體制特質,但由於其屬外派單位,而較似鬆散之科層(loosely coupled-system),基層實務工作人員的自主性高,所受外在或上級的管制較少,亦不受其他部門的牽制與影響,有利於專業自主之提升。(2)政府科層組織與社會工作專業結合之影響展現在三大方面:a.有法源作為依據,雖可使社會工作者在工作時有所參照,更可保障案主權益,但卻潛藏著經常面臨福利無法到位之危機。b.身處民眾、民意代表、局裡長官等政治氛圍中之社會工作者,可能遭遇原屬於社會工作專業的評估與裁量權,似乎蕩然無存之困境c.不論個案工作或方案執行,皆須通過層層關卡同意才得以施行,雖更確保個案評估與處遇以及方案設計之服務品質,但反而造成實務工作上之困擾。(3)面對政府科層組織對社會工作專業之影響的因應與調適有三大策略:a.合作,試圖與政府科層組織一起合作,找出對彼此雙方最為有利的解決問題方式。b.妥協,經由溝通彼此不同的意見以滿足自己和對方的部分利益,藉此取得共同接受的共識。c.逃避,產生鴕鳥心態或是形成官僚性格,認為身處政府科層組織有許多的逼不得已,只好隨波逐流,避免自己傷痕累累。 最後根據研究結果,針對政府科層提出四點建議,包括:(1) 以「諮詢式科層」(advisory bureaucracy)取代傳統科層;(2)調整科層最佳效能作為專業實施之後盾;(3)運用裁量權以彌補福利法規之不足;(4) 建立溝通協調機制。此外,亦針對社會工作者提出四點建議,包括:(1)事先瞭解政府科層組織之生態;(2)堅守自己的信念;(3)提升溝通與協調之技巧;(4)持續充實自己的能量。以此作為未來政府科層組織與社會工作專業結合之參考。
With the advent of the welfare state, the chances of social workers employed as government employees are escalating. Within the hierarchical organization of the government, the institutionalized working process does ensure the adequacy and effectiveness of services; however, there are disadvantages coming with hierarchy inevitably which may even bring negative effects to the effectiveness of the service. The combination of government hierarchical organizations and the social work profession is an imperative, as the result, the issue of how social workers react and adjust when they face the impacts of government hierarchical organizations on social work professionals becomes more and more important that is worthy of our attention. Although there are many discussions referring to the influences and conflicts between hierarchical organizations and the social work profession, dissertations which really get involved into this issue are few. Accordingly, the purposes of this study are: (1) to understand the executive situation of social work practice in regional social welfare center; (2) to investigate the influences of government hierarchical organizations on social work professionals; (3) to analyze social workers’ reactions and adjustments strategies when they faced the conflict between government hierarchical organizations and the social work profession. The sample of this study consisted of 8 social workers in regional social welfare centers in Taipei city and county. Data was collected based on in-depth interview. The data collection period was from June to October in 2010. The main findings of this survey are as below: 1. Although the regional social welfare centers contain the feature of hierarchy, they belong to dispatched units which are more similar to loosely coupled-systems. Basic level staffs of regional social welfare centers own more independence so that outer power and higher authorities won’t put much restriction and constraint on them. 2. There are three impacts of the combination of government hierarchical organizations and the social work profession: A. Social workers provide services in accordance with law that not only give social workers a reference but also protect client’s rights. However, abiding by law lurks a potential crisis which may hurt the completeness of welfare. B. Social workers surrounding by public, delegates and senior officers may lose their evaluating and measuring power original belonging to social work professionals. C. Social workers have to acquire layers and layers permission to provide services and to execute programs. This may ensure the accuracy of workers’ case assessment and program design; it also brings besetment to social work practice. 3. There are three strategies used by social workers to react and adjust the impacts of government hierarchical organizations on social work profession: a. corporations, b. compromise, and c. avoidance. According to the research findings,the researcher suggests: (1) replacing advisory bureaucracy with traditional hierarchy; (2) adjusting hierarchy efficiency to its best in order to support social work professionals’ execution; (3) promoting social worker’s power in decision-making for service to supplement the shortage of welfare regulations, and (4) building negotiation and coordination system.
Other Identifiers: GN0696180066
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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