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Ethnic Discrimination, Cultural Identity and Life Adjustment among New Immigrant Adolescents in Junior High School: The Example of Five Townships in Chiayi County
New immigrant adolescents
|Abstract:||本研究主要在探討族群歧視（包括最近的歧視經驗、歧視壓力感受）、文化認同對新住民子女生活適應的影響情形。此外，由於國內較少有同時檢視族群歧視與文化認同的復原力研究，因此，為了解新住民子女的文化認同是否具有復原力的補償效果，本研究乃著重於族群歧視、文化認同皆存在的狀況下，新住民子女的文化認同對生活適應是否能發揮直接的正向影響力。本研究以嘉義縣五個鄉鎮市中，就讀國中階段的新住民子女為對象，最後分析的有效樣本共345位。此外，本研究所使用的問卷有先經過專家效度、Cronbach's α與再測信度的檢驗，而調查所得之資料則使用統計軟體SPSS 22.0版，進行描述統計、獨立樣本t檢定、單因子變異數分析、皮爾森積差相關分析和多元迴歸分析，結果發現：
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of ethnic discrimination (including recent discrimination and appraised discrimination) and cultural identity on new immigrant adolescents’ life adjustment. However, few resilience studies have simultaneously examined the effects of ethnic discrimination and cultural identity in Taiwan. It is important to find out whether new immigrant adolescents’ cultural identity includes compensatory effects. Therefore, this study discusses whether new immigrant adolescents’ cultural identity could have a direct and positive influence on their life adjustment when ethnic discrimination and cultural identity are simultaneously present. The participants of this study were new immigrant adolescents at junior high schools in five townships in Chiayi County. A total of 345 valid samples were analyzed. Furthermore, the instruments used in this study were evaluated according to expert validity, Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson product moment correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results were as follows: 1.Nearly thirty percent of new immigrant adolescents experienced ethnic discrimination in the last year. These adolescents’ experiences of ethnic discrimination were mainly related to the school and peer levels, such as being treated unfairly by “teachers”, “classmates” and “friends”, as well as “being called a racist name”, “being made fun of or threatened with harm” and “getting into an argument or a fight about something racist that was done to you or done to other new immigrant adolescents.” 2.New immigrant adolescents’ stress due to discrimination (appraised discrimination) mainly resulted from the school and peer contexts. Moreover, minor stress from discrimination resulted from being treated unfairly by “teachers”, “classmates” and “friends.” Medium to severe stress due to discrimination was caused by “being called a racist name” and “being made fun of or threatened with harm.” 3.New immigrant adolescents’ cultural identity was above average. Among all aspects of cultural identity, “cultural integration” was the highest, followed by “cultural belonging”, and “cultural involvement” was the lowest. 4.New immigrant adolescents’ life adjustment was above average. Among all aspects of life adjustment, “peer adjustment” was the highest, followed by “family adjustment” and “personal adjustment”, and “school adjustment” was the lowest. 5.Recent discrimination significantly and negatively influenced new immigrant adolescents’ overall life adjustment, school adjustment and peer adjustment. 6.Appraised discrimination had a significantly negative effect on new immigrant adolescents’ overall life adjustment, personal adjustment, family adjustment, school adjustment and peer adjustment. 7.When recent discrimination and appraised discrimination were present, new immigrant adolescents’ cultural identity made a positive impact on their overall life adjustment, family adjustment and school adjustment. In other words, new immigrant adolescents’ cultural identity had a compensatory effect. Lastly, according to the results, some suggestions were proposed for schools, competent government authorities, social welfare organizations, social workers and parents.
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