Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Paris．Representation--The Second Gaze and Photographic Practice of Taiwanese Re-travelers
Circle of Representation
The gaze is constructed through signs, and tourism involves the collection of signs. (Urry, 1990) Traveler will collect the imagined signs which were constructed before leaving. The signs are not only the images we see but also contain deeper implications, no matter they are given by society or constructed by travelers themselves.Tourist sites are sold through advertisements. Different traveler accepts different destination images from different media and message. In this way, traveler will shoot the same or different image. As a result, photos could be the best exampler of vertifying the touristic imaginations constructed by travelers. However, the travelers’ photos are often influenced by the social forces. Hall(1997) proposed “circle of representation” to explain the phenomenon that travelers are influenced by the media so that they would shoot the images presented on media repeatedly. They are impacted by “place myths” which were made by place-marketing institutes. They reproduce and disseminate “classical images”, which reinforce the position of “classical images”. The results also show that independent travelers would also influenced by “circle of representation”, even they supposed to be dissimilar to mass tourists. The aim of this article is to find out the image representational characteristics of Taiwanese independent traveler and the differences between their first and second journey. This research focuses on the most-visited European city for Taiwanes—Paris. First, the author use content analysis to find out the images which are represented most frequently on guidebooks. Then, interview Taiwanese independent re-travlers who visited Paris more than two times. Aside from traditiopnal in-depth interview, the author asks the interviewees for photos to get research data through photo-elicitation. At last, find out the “classical images” which are constructed by society and “non-classical images” expressing personal experiences to explain the image representational charateristics of Taiwanese independent travelers. The result shows that Taiwanese independent travelers had constructed “romantic” imaginations of Paris before leaving. Also, they would like to embody them throght landscapes on journeys. As a result, Taiwanese independent travelers would choose the same image as in guidebooks to represent. Also, they would collect the “feeling of Paris”. As for concrete image representation, the author divides the photos presented by Taiwanese independent traveler into tne groups.Aaccording to Scarles(2009), there are five groups: political artifact, reflexive performance, imagination of space, embodied visualities, ethical prompt. “Political artifact”, more objectve expression, is represented by travelers under social forces; the others are more subjective personal thoughts. Furthermore, beyond the five classifications, the author divides the photos took by Taiwanese independent travler into: expression of emotion, dance of a place, individual event on journeys, embodiment of what I have learned, symbolic memento of journeys. These not only record individual touristic experiences but also reveal the characteristics of Taiwanese independent traveler. When it comes to the comparasion of first and second journer, the result shows that most of the travelers would influenced by society forces, representing the same “classical images” with guidebooks, in other word, “political artifact”. However, the ratio of shooting “classical images” declines in the second journey, the ratio of the other classifications rether than “political artifact” increases. To sum up, Taiwanese independent re-travelers have detached from “circle of representation” and correspond to “second gaze”(MacCannell, 2001) When it comes to the imaginations of Taiwanese independent travelersbefore leaving, they think Paris is usually wonderful because being influenced by Eurocentricism endowed by mass media. As for the representational characteristics on journeys, independent traveler would collect images of Paris projected by media objectively. However, they would like to record something they observe or experience on journeys subjectively. Finally, the author proposes several practical opinions and suggestions for follow-up research.
|Appears in Collections:||學位論文|
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.