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Titel: 臺灣第三次政黨輪替前後社會運動之研究(2014-2018)
A Research on Taiwan’s Social Movement during the Period of the Third Party Alternation(2014-2018)
Autoren: 陳文政
Chen, Wen-Cheng
Yeh, Pei-Wen
Stichwörter: 第三次政黨輪替
The Third Party Alternation
Social Movement
Protest Event
Political Opportunity Structure
Erscheinungsdatum: 2019
Zusammenfassung: 2016 年,台灣發生第三次政黨輪替。民進黨政府在第二次執政後,台灣社會運動所面臨政治機會結構的改變,分別是民進黨政府的政策保守路線、既開放又緊縮的政策管道、反對黨作為社會運動的政治聯盟者,以及國家的鎮壓能力與傾向呈現維安警力比例的大幅升高。 首先,本研究以《聯合報》在2014 年5月20日至2018 年5月20日所蒐錄的抗爭報導資料,進行社會運動下的抗爭事件分析,其中聚焦於抗爭事件的發起單位、發生地點、主要訴求議題、規模、抗議對象、劇碼、以及報導版面,以求勾勒出台灣第三次政黨輪替前後社會運動變遷的概括樣貌,接著並運用政治機會結構的概念解釋,為何近四年的社會運動,在面臨身為社運團體的盟友民進黨政府執政後仍然未見停歇?本研究梳理出台灣第三次政黨輪替前後社會運動的三項變化趨勢:第一,政治機會結構的開啟與否,影響社會運動的抗爭事件數量,但不影響強度,日益強化的抗爭規模在第三次政黨輪替後呈現逐漸增多的趨勢;第二,2016年,蔡英文政府執政後,厲行推動各類全國性政策議題,惟引發爭議;導致社運團體組織開始傾向以議題凝聚共識,抗爭內容更趨於全國性議題;第三,由於蔡英文政府推行全國性政策時引發諸多爭議,引起民眾不滿,導致與國民黨政府執政時期相較,民進黨時期的抗爭事件更傾向朝中央政府抗議訴求。 最後,台灣第三次政黨輪替前後出現了兩項重大抗爭個案,分別為:勞團與勞工權益抗爭活動、性別團體之婚姻平權運動等兩項抗爭案例。本研究除深度解析,並以政治機會結構觀點進行檢視,以期透過仔細觀察第三次政黨輪替前後的政治機會結構轉變及社會經濟脈絡,分析此時期社會運動所發生的抗爭事件,進而思考台灣社會運動的軌跡變遷與特性。
In 2016, the third party alternation occurred in Taiwan. After the second ruling of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Taiwan’s social movement faced changes in political opportunity structure, including DDP’s conservative approach toward policies, the policy channels that are both open and tight, the opposition parties being political allies in social movement, and the repressive power and tendency of the nation showed a substantial increase in the ratio of order-maintaining police force. First, this study used the information on protests reported by“United Daily News” from May 20, 2014 to May 20, 2018 to analyze protests under social movement. The analysis focused on the initiation unit, venue, major appeals, scale, targets, repertoire, and news layout of the protests to outline a summarization of the changes in social movement during the period of the third party alternation in Taiwan. The study then used the concept of political opportunity structure to explain why the social movement that had been going on for nearly four year still seemed endless after the governing of DDP, which was an ally of social movement groups. This study sorted out three variation tendencies of social movement during the period of the third party alternation in Taiwan: (1) The opening or closing of political opportunity structure affected the amount of social movement protest events but not the intensity, and the protest scale that strengthened day by day gradually increased after the third party alternation; (2) After Tsai Ing-Wen became the president in 2016, the government enforced and promoted strictly a variety of national policy issues, which aroused controversies; social movement groups began to incline towards garnering consensus with issues, and the contents of protests even trended towards national issues; (3) Due to many controversies were aroused when the Tsai Ing-Wen administration implemented the national policies, many people were discontent, leading to the fact that, compared to the period governed by KMT, the protests under DDP governance inclined more towards protesting against and appealing to the central government. Finally, there were two major protest cases appeared during the period of the third party alternation in Taiwan: for rights of labor groups and laborers, the marriage equality movement of gender groups. In addition to in-depth analysis, the study inspected from the viewpoint of political opportunity structure to analyze the protest events of social movement during this period, then think about the changes and characteristics of social movements in Taiwan, by observing carefully the change of political opportunity structure and the socioeconomic context during the period of the third party alternation.
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