Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85803
Title: 後期水戶學的形成與開展───以「國體」論建構為中心
The Formation and Development of the Late Mito School: Focusing on the Construction of Kokutai Theory
Authors: 藤井倫明
Michiaki, Fujii
郭雨穎
Kuo, Yu-Ying
Keywords: 國體
後期水戶學
古學
會澤正志齋
尊王攘夷
祭政教一致
報本反始

Kokutai
Late Mito School
Soraigaku
Aizawa Seshisai
Sonnō jōi
Saiseikyō Itchi
Hōhonhanshi
Trend
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 後期水戶學提出之「國體」論,其對於明治維新後近代日本的國家論乃至民族主義的建構影響甚大,儼然是極為重要的思想資源。本文旨在扣緊時代脈絡,著眼於思想史視角作為切入點,以此來對「國體」論建構過程進行探討。首先,將檢討古代中國「國家」概念之形成,從而證成儒家身體觀範疇下之「繼體」,是為打造「國體」的思想源流。此概念成形於先秦時期,並隨著經籍東傳至日本,進而與佛教、神道相互融合,轉而作為天皇皇統承續的論理。融攝佛、神之「繼體」概念,在南北朝時期北畠親房的《神皇正統記》中得到初步底定。逮至江戶時期,此一概念,則為前期水戶學所繼承,在其主張的「南朝正統論」下,以固有底蘊之神道作為認知基礎,並疊加了儒家名分論的立場,展開脈絡化的歷程。其次,「國體」論之預想,則是後期水戶學繼承此前之思想基礎,發軔自幕末「尊王攘夷」的時代脈絡當中,聚焦會澤正志齋於《新論》〈國體〉所申闡之「尚武」、「明忠孝」、「重民命」作為思想基調。並在此一前提下訴諸復古,特別是融攝徂徠古學後,將德川幕藩政體比擬為中國上古「三代」、「封建」,就此「想像」展開對「國體」的闡說。最後,「國體」之論理,則是通過德川齊昭《弘道館記》所揭櫫的「敬神崇儒」作為指導原則,以儒家的鬼神祭祀、禮樂教化論,來對日本固有的神話體系、政治秩序進行重構,嘗試自其中發掘神道與儒家的相契性,摶合神儒是為「神聖之道」,進而在此認識上,來對國學者主張的「惟神之道」進行批判,使「國體」建構能達致「神聖同歸」的理想狀態。故其側重在人倫之道的闡發,以祭祀作為「報本反始」的呈現,使「忠孝一本」之思想特質,「祭政教一致」之政治型態得以朗現,企圖打造一個「祭祀共同體」,此則「國體」的完成。綜而論之,後期水戶學「國體」建構的意義,以復古為旨歸,不但講求對於日本上代神話、政體祖型的回歸,且在此重構過程當中,其思想的呈露,同時亦預示了近代民族國家雛型創出的可能。
“Kokutai” Theory (國體, national essence) proposed by the Late Mito School, it great Influence and thought resources for the construction of Nation state and Nationalism in modern Japan. In order to fully appreciate the Late Mito School’s “Kokutai” Theory, the main contention of this thesis is based on Historical context and the History of Interpretations perspective to discuss and analyze the construction process of “Kokutai” Theory. First, it will be formed to review the "Guójiā" (國家, state) concept of ancient China, thus justified under the Confucian concept of Body-thinking “Jìtǐ” (繼體, the body of succession to the throne) is to build interpretations origin of “Kokutai” Theory. “Jìtǐ” is formed in the Pre-Qin China, and with the Classics spread to Japan, then with Buddhism, Shinto mutual integration, instead as Imperial system of Tennō and his/ her legitimate succession. After assimilation Buddha and Shinto, “Jìtǐ” was being initially settled by Kitabatake Chikafusa his representative work Jinnō Shōtōki (《神皇正統記》) in the Nanboku-chō period (南北朝時代, Medieval Japan). Until Edo period, this concept was the Early Mito School inherited, and under scholars advocated “Nanchōseitōron” (南朝正統論, the legitimacy of the Yoshino Court), who was with Shinto as a Cultural Detail of the cognitive basis, and superimposed on the Meibun/Taigi-meibun (儒家名分論, Status of Confucianism), thus expand the course of contextualization. Second, “Kokutai” Theory was Late Mito scholars inherited previous Intellectual heritage, and originated from “Bakumatsu” (幕末時期, Late Tokugawa period) of Sonnō jōi (尊王攘夷, honor the king and drive off the barbarians), moreover, focusing on Aizawa Seishisai his Shinron “Kokutai” (《新論》〈國體〉) advocate Shōbu (尚武, martial), Mi-Chūkō (明忠孝, manifest loyalty and filial piety ) , Chō-Minmei (重民命, pay attention to the people will) as interpretation tone. Under the premise to appeal restore to ancient ways, especially after assimilation Ogyū Sorai’s kobunjigaku (古學, Soraigaku; Ancient Rhetoric), comparing the curtain Bakuhan System (幕藩體制, Tokugawa Bakufu Military Regime) likened to the ancient China “The Three Dynasties” (三代, Xia, Shang and Zhou Period) and “Hōken” (封建體制, Feudal system), in this imagine launching on the explanation of “Kokutai” Theory. Furthermore, “Kokutai” Theory’s logic, it’s through Tokugawa Nariaki’s Kōdōkanki (《弘道館記》) enshrined in the “KeiKmaishūJu ” (敬神崇儒, respect Kmai and adore Confucianism) as the guiding principle, but also in Confucian “worship of spirits” (鬼神祭祀, worship gods and ghosts, but also including pay respect to ancestors) and “Rei-gaku teaching”(禮樂教化, execute ritual and music to reach enlightenment) to reconstruct Japan's inherent mythology, political order, try to run from the excavation of Shinto and Confucian affinities, unity of Shinto and Confucian to create the “Shinsei-no-michi” (神聖之道, the Dao combination of Shinto and Confucianism), further on this understanding, to critique o “Kokugakusha” (國學者, Thinkers who are worked to refocus Japanese Classics) advocates “Kan'nagara-no-michi” (惟神之道, the Dao only for Kami), to make “Kokutai” Theory can reach perfect state of “Shinseidōki” (神聖同歸, Shinto and Confucian to attain the same objective). So it's emphasis on Dao of Confucian's Human Relationships, and it’s presented worship as “Hōhonhanshi” (報本反始, an expression of gratitude to the source ), that interpretative characteristic of Chūkōippon (忠孝一本, the unity of loyalty [zhong忠] and filial piety [xiao孝]), and a political form of “Saiseikyō Itchi” (祭政教一致, the unity of religion and politics and teaching) to appear, in an attempt to build the “Worship community” (祭祀共同體, the country which is unity of religion and politics and teaching), that is the completion of “Kokutai” Theory. In general, the constructive significance of “Kokutai” Theory to Late Mito Scholars, they resorted to back to the ancient works as purport, it’s not only emphasizes the Ancient Japanese mythology, the ancestral type of polity, and in this reconstruction process, which interpretations reveal, but also foreshadowed the possibility of creating prototypes of the modern nation state.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22G060183001I%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85803
Other Identifiers: G060183001I
Appears in Collections:學位論文

Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.