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Titel: 後蘇哈托時期印尼華人之參政:以參選地方首長爭取當地社會對於華人之認同
Indonesian Tionghoa's Political Participation in Post-Soeharto Era: The Strive for Identity from Local Societies by Running for Elections of Local Chief Executives
Autoren: 關弘昌
Kuan, Hung-Chang
Lin, Dong-Yu
Stichwörter: 印尼華人
Indonesian-Tionghoa (Chinese)
political participation of Tionghoa (Chinese)
Basuki Cahaya Purnama (Ahok)
identity from Indonesian society
local chief executives
Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
Erscheinungsdatum: 2016
Zusammenfassung: 2014年,印尼出現後蘇哈托時期首位華人省長-鍾萬學,不僅象徵印尼華人之參政邁向新里程碑,激勵更多華人投入當地政治事務,亦有助於維繫華人地位與權利。然而回顧蘇哈托下野之後的印尼華人的參政,不論是華人自組政黨參與當地政治事務,或是代表主流政黨參與議會或地方選舉,當地社會仍有部分不認同華人身份與其族群參政之反對聲音。相較於印尼華人社會,近年積極呼籲與尋求族群自我認同,華人亦須努力爭取當地社會對於華人之認同,透過民主體制之參政途徑,漸次達成其他層面之認同。 本文首先透過後蘇哈托時期,印尼華人參政事實之文獻分析,認為投身地方首長選舉已漸為華人參政趨勢;並藉由鍾萬學之參政過程與作為,奠定對於華人參政之指標意義。其次,以網路民族誌作為資料蒐集之方法,觀察當地社會對於鍾萬學華人身份之特定議題的留言,可發現多元而一體之國家意識已漸入人心,因而多數人能接受華人身為國家公民,參與當地政治。 是故,本文認為華人參政不單只為維繫華人社會之生存與發展,反而是得以爭取當地社會對於華人之認同的切入點。儘管當前印尼華人之參政,仍須面臨內外部之窒礙,並積極耕耘於當地政治領域;不過隨著華人參政之勢漸盛,不僅能向內凝聚其自我認同,透過參政促進之交流與互動,亦有助於獲得當地社會對於華人之認同。因此本文提出以華人參政作為切入點,爭取當地社會對於華人之認同的探索性途徑;透過此途徑促進彼此互動,有助於雙方達到其他層面之認同,進而體現印尼建國五原則與多元而一體之國家基礎。
In 2014, Basuki Cahaya Purnama (popularly known as Ahok) was inaugurated as the first governor with Tionghoa ethnicity in the post-Soeharto era. His case not only marks the milestone of Tionghoa’s political participation in Indonesia, but also inspires more Tionghoa to engage in the local politics, with the aim of maintaining their social status and rights. Nevertheless, while Tionghoa enthusiastically participate in the local politics by means of establishing political parties, being upheld by mainstream parties for representative elections, or running for local elections, there are still some people in the public who do not recognize Tionghoa’s identity and their political participation. Therefore, with companion of recent advocacy to strive for self-identity, the Indonesian-Tionghoa can leap at the chance, through the approach of political participation in the democratic electoral system, to gain the preliminary identity from local society, and gradually achieve identity in other aspects. By analyzing the facts of Indonesian-Tionghoa’s political participation after the fall of Soeharto, this research firstly shows that running for elections of local chief executives has steadily become the trend for Tionghoa’s political participation. Moreover, with netnography as the method of data collecting for further analysis, the ideology of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Unity in Diversity) has been rooted in the public’s mind since several significant cases, discriminating Basuki’s Tionghoa identity, are denounced by most people in their comments. Accordingly, more people in Indonesia can also accept Tionghoa, as national citizens, to engage in local politics. Therefore, it is shown in these case analyses that Tionghoa’s political participation is not only the way to sustain their development, but also the entry point to obtain identity from the local public. Although Tionghoa still need to be more active in political participation with facing internal and external hampers, they may be benefited from interaction brought by more Tionghoa’s political participation, which enhances both their self-identity bound and the identity from the society. To sum up, this exploratory research concludes that Indonesian-Tionghoa should seize the opportunity to strive for identity from the public by political participation, which gives Tionghoa a potential approach to stimulating their interaction with the local public and other dimensions of identity from the latter, so as to embody the values disclosed in the national ideology, Pancasila and Bhinneka Tunggal Ika.
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