Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85796
Title: 台灣「宗教用地」問題與審議機制之研究
A Study on The Reviewing System and "Related Issues of The Religious Area Developments" in Taiwan
Authors: 黃人傑
Huang, Jen-Chieh
吳惠巧
Wu, Hui-Chiao
Keywords: 宗教用地與設施
行政治理
土地使用分區
宗教用地審議規範
religious land and building
administration governance
zoning
review issues of the religious area developments
Issue Date: 2005
Abstract: 台灣的土地開發利用一直走在政府的土地政策之前,土地利用受到政經環境的影響,土地政策採剛性的「土地使用分區管制」,以計畫經濟型態限制土地供給,但民眾對於土地的需求則是市場導向的自由經濟型態,二者之間形成脫鉤現象。政府在重經濟發展之時,忽略了國土的有效規劃,既無宏觀願景,又未落實國土保育與保安因而造成環境資源的破壞與土地過度開發,致使台灣呈現天然災害日益嚴重的問題。檢視台灣地區土地違規使用問題以「宗教用地與設施」最為普遍,它遍存於全台各地且問題日益複雜。因宗教事務不屬於經濟活動,昔日政府並未重視亦無事先劃設宗教土地使用分區,任由宗教團體在台灣各地隨意興建宗教設施,長期以來形成政府治理宗教事務最棘手的問題,因涉及宗教敏感性,政府採取消極迴避的治理方式。許多宗教團體因經費與偏好的考量,選擇興建設施於價格較廉之農地或山坡地,必須透過手續相當困難的土地使用變更審議機制方能取得合法用地,致長期困擾著政府與宗教團體,影響國土城鄉風貌與宗教團體發展。 本研究首先從台灣與英國、中國大陸的土地管制政策作比較,從中了解台灣土地政策的獨特性;再從台灣宗教的特性與政府治理宗教事務的政策,發現其中最棘手的問題即是宗教團體的土地利用與設施違規使用問題。但政府迄今仍未能提出具體改善措施而任其日益嚴重。本研究透過深度訪談得悉宗教團體的用地問題與各界對於宗教用地審議規範專章之需求;另配合國土規劃發展理念提出建置宗教用地審議規範專章之構想,透過TGRRL(宗教用地審議系統分析模型)建立宗教用地審議規範的評估架構,篩選宗教用地審議規範方案為「都市」與「非都市」土地二種宗教用地審議規範草案,再將草案進行問卷調查分析,進而建構一套「宗教用地審議規範條文與配套措施及其審查作業要點條文」草案,輔以宗教團體的案例進行實證分析。 本研究盼能拋磚引玉喚起政府與民間共同關注與解決宗教團體的土地使用問題。研究發現:1.「宗教治理面」:台灣宗教蓬勃發展強調入世信仰,宗教團體已趨向現代化管理,政府應考量宗教、技術各歸專業原則,設置單一窗口與釐清目的事業主管機關的角色,輔導宗教團體朝多元化發展,提昇社會教化功能,提高政府行政效率及宗教用地的利用價值,儘速完成「宗教團體法」草案的審議公布施行,解決宗教團體不動產取得的問題;2.「宗教法令面」:台灣的宗教特性因與政府所訂頒的許多土地開發及建築管理相關法令規定不符,造成宗教設施有相當程度的違規使用情形;宗教設施所涉及的法令相當專業又繁多,宗教團體管理者或其信眾有許多均不諳相關規定,政府除了應加強建立民眾的法治觀念外,亦應檢討改善相關的法令規範;3.「宗教審議面」:檢視宗教團體申辦用地變更的審議階段多因無法取得環評、水保與雜項執照等導致未獲合法化,應可透過簡化土地變更審議程序,達到解決宗教用地審議之合理化與合法化。本研究所建構之「宗教用地審議規範條文與配套措施及其審查作業要點條文草案」,將能適時提供學術研究、政府治理與宗教團體之參考。
Although the land-use is somewhat conditioned by the political and economic situation, the land development in Taiwan is not so consistent with the governmental land policies. The governmental land usage applies zoning system. The land supply is strictly limited under the planning economy. However, average citizens’ demand of land is market oriented. Therefore, the governmental policy is not well connected with the people’s demand. The government has been stressed the economical importance at ignoring overall effective planning of the country’s land and future vision. The land has been so overdeveloped that the land resources are more or less undermined. As a result, the problem of natural disasters has increasingly becoming worse and worse. In terms of the illegal land usage in Taiwan, the problems arising from the religious land and building are most common, serious and complicated. Because religious affairs are not economical activities, the government has ignored them without thorough planning. Taiwan’s religious groups have established their religious buildings throughout Taiwan without a vision. This already becomes a long-term thorny problem, which the government does not want to deal with directly. In consideration of the expenditure and unique preference, many religious groups chose to construct their buildings on farming land or hillsides. Although this can save money, the legitimacy must go through a legal process of land-use change. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to attain the legitimacy. And it has become long-term problem for the government and religious groups. First, this study makes a comparison with land control policies among Taiwan, Britain and Mainland China. In this way, we can get a better understanding of the unique nature of Taiwan’s land policy. And then, taking into consideration the characteristics of Taiwan’s religions as well as the governmental policies, I find that the most-thorny problem is the illegal usage of land and building of religious groups. However, the government cannot take effective measures to resolve the problem which has been becoming worse and worse. Through in-depth interviews, this study gets a better understanding of the land usage of religious groups, pointing out the need of creating a deliberation specifications for religious land. And according to the concepts of national territory planning, I advance the idea of creating deliberation specifications for religious land. By means of TGRRL system analysis model, we can establish the evaluation framework of deliberation specifications for religious land, thus drafting both specifications for urban and non-urban religious land. These drafts are screened via questionnaire survey of TGRRL operation. The study hopes to create “the articles and related package for deliberation specifications for religious land& the articles of the main points of reviewing process.” Finally, some cases are further analyzed for reviewing these deliberation articles. This study urgently calls upon the government and the public to work together to settle the problems of religious land-use. The findings include several aspects: first, “on the aspect of religious governance”. Since Taiwan’s religions have been prosperously developing on real world belief, they almost are operated within the frame of modern management. The government is supposed to make the role of the authorities clear in accordance to the principle of professionalism. And it needs to encourage the multiple developments of religious groups to cultivate and educate the public. To enhance the government’s administrative efficiency and to promote the value of religious land, it’s necessary to create “the law of religious groups” to regulate the property of religious groups. Second, “on the aspect of religious laws.” Many of the practices of Taiwan’s religions are against the related governmental laws; many religious facilities, to a certain degree, are not legal. Moreover, many of the managments of the religious groups and their believers cannot have a good understanding of the laws. Besides educating the public, the government should review and examine these laws. Third, “on the aspect of religious deliberation.” Most of the land-use conversions of religious land are illegal for lack of legal licenses such as those of environment impact evaluation, water resources protection, and so on. The government is advised to establish a standard administrative procedure to simplify the deliberation process of land-use conversion. Hopefully, “the articles and related package for deliberation specifications for religious land& the articles of the main points of reviewing process” can serve as references for the academics, the governmental officials and religious groups.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22N2005000174%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85796
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