Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85758
Title: 中國大陸網路公民社會發展與國家權力競合關係之研究
The Studying of Chinese Development of On-line Civic Society and The Competing of State Power
Authors: 黃城
Haung,Chen
單文婷
Shan,Wen-Ting
Keywords: 網路公民社會
資訊社會理論
資訊全球化
網路管制
Online Civil Society
Information Society Theory
Information Globalization
Network Control
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: 21世紀的中國大陸已成為世界經濟體系中的重要成員並在全球經濟市場扮演關鍵角色。回顧中國大陸最近二十年的經濟發展歷程,90年代後受到西方國家資訊全球化影響而展開的資訊化建設對於實體經濟發生重要影響,與此同時,資訊化建設也支撐起中國大陸資訊產業迅速發展,例如網際網路、移動式通訊等並且加快資訊社會興起。儘管中國大陸的資訊社會發展基礎來自於西方資訊全球化的運作邏輯,然而最後卻發展出不同於西方國家的「中國化」資訊社會,其特徵除了與西方國家相似的網絡化、高度商業化以及媒體集中等趨勢外,更有別於其他國家的是中國大陸政府強勢主導資訊化發展方向以及其特殊的網路管制政策,因而也形成其一邊發展資訊經濟、一邊嚴格管制網路的特殊景象。經濟發展帶動中國大陸社會進步,人民權利思想萌發,公民社會也逐漸展現活力。90年代後期網路興起後不僅加速公民社會發展也促使網路公民社會形成。網路公民社會並非是全新概念,其應視為公民社會的延伸,藉著網路新科技,公民們在網路上傳播公民意識、關懷公共事務甚至基於公共利益展開動員,藉由網路進行公民運動。而此發展趨勢不僅衝擊大陸當局傳統的威權統治模式,對於長久以來弱勢的公民社會發展更具有全然不同的意義。 網路科技不但成為中國大陸公民社會發展的重要媒介,網路本身也形成新型態電子式公民社會,這即是本研究所指「網路公民社會」。本研究主要目的在討論資訊全球化發展背景下中國大陸網路公民社會的興起與發展,而研究範圍是從90年代因應資訊全球化浪潮至21世紀進入網路時代後的社會變化,研究焦點在觀察網路公民社會借助「資訊化」力量進而從公民社會、國家治理與經濟市場三者互動中得到發展空間,而基於「互動」觀點,本研究也關注網路公民社會如何反向影響中國大陸公民社會發展、影響國家治理權威以及影響經濟市場發展發生變化。另方面,網路公民與國家權力競合過程中將對公民社會地位提升以及「國家─社會」互動關係產生何種變化?而此種發展對於中國大陸推向民主化又將產生何種驅動力也成為本研究討論重點。 為了解網路科技、公民社會、國家治理與經濟市場間的互動關係,本研究採取理性選擇制度主義作為研究途徑,在制度框架下探討國家治理如何在日漸興起的公民社會以及利益可觀的網路經濟市場雙重壓力下進行網路管制政策調控的理性選擇,而此也讓網路公民社會得到發展機會與空間。本研究同時藉由三個發生在2011年的網路個案分析、文獻討論以及透過訪談學者專家,論證網路公民社會興起與影響,而最後研究發現如下:一、中國大陸以建設「中國化資訊社會」來回應以西方國家為主力的「資訊全球化」;二、網路與公民社會互動結果不僅有助於強化公民社會進步,同時也促成網路公民社會快速發展;三、國家網路管制政策逐漸出現彈性調整,此也使得網路公民社會得到發展空間並且具備正當性;四、網路經濟市場快速發展對於網路公民社會也產生正面影響,同時網路企業為維持網站高點閱率,某些時候也選擇遊走在管制邊緣,保持網路論壇上的喧嘩狀態;五、網路公民社會同時在國家治理、經濟市場與公民社會三方勢力互動中成長,並且同時與三者保持互動關係;六、網路公民社會發展對中國大陸民主化產生推進作用但仍受到制度與環境因素限制。 本研究透過網路個案與訪談專家學者論證網路公民社會確實在國家、社會與經濟市場三者交互影響下形成發展,並且在與國家權力博奕中不斷進步,雖然至今網路公民社會發展並未能改變「強國家」與「弱社會」政治格局,但事實上,網路科技卻促使中國大陸「弱社會」正迅速進步,同時網路公民們也透過一次又一次成功的網路事件累積了對抗政府的社會資本與經驗,公共理性與公民意識快速凝聚,對於推動中國大陸基層民主化產生實質幫助。網路公民社會是中國大陸在資訊社會發展過程中出現的新型態電子式公民社會,象徵資訊時代下公民透過網路科技獲得對資訊流通的掌控權力,即使是在威權體制國家,社會仍可藉由網路科技得到發展機會。本研究對於中國大陸網路公民社會發展仍持樂觀態度,很重要的原因在於觀察到大陸當局對網路治理的思維正在改變,網路管制政策也隨著網路影響力日漸顯著而且呈現出靈活彈性的漸歇式特徵,然而數位落差、網路素養及網路過度商業化等問題仍使得網路公民社會發展持續面臨批評與挑戰。
Mainland China in the 21st century has become an important member of global economic system and plays a critical role in the global economic market. In retrospect of the latest 20 years of economic development in mainland China, the period after the 1990s was affected by the information globalization of Western countries and unfolded information infrastructure have resulted in important influence on the physical economy. At the same time, information infrastructure also supports the quick development of information industries, including the internet and mobile communication that promote the rise of information society. Although the developing foundation of the information society in mainland China originated from the operating logistics of information globalization, which eventually develops into a “Sinicized” information society different than that of Western countries; its characteristics differ from the strong dominance of the mainlandChinese government in the direction of information development and the special network control policies from other countries, apart from trends in network, highly commercialization and media centralization similar to Western countries. Consequently, the result is special phenomenon of development of information economics on one hand and rigorous internet control on the other hand. Internet technology not only becomes an important media for the development of civil society in mainland China, the internet itself forms a new model of electronic civil society, known as the “Online Civil Society.” The study mainly aims to discuss the rise and development of online civil society in mainland China under the development of information globalization. The research scope covers the development in response to information globalization in the 1990s to the social changes in post-internet in the 21st century. The research focus observes online civil society with assistance of “information” power and thereby to acquire developing space under the interaction of civil society, State policies and economic market. Based on the perspective of “interaction,” the study also focuses on how online civil society affects the development of civil society, the State governance and authority resulting in changes as well as the influence on economic market development using reverse effects. On the other hand, what kind of changes will result from the upgrade of Co-Opetition process of online civil and State powers to the status of civil society and “State-society” interaction? The kinds of driving power resulted in the democratization of mainland China from such development also become the key discussion of the study. To understand the interaction between internet technology, civil society, State governance, and economic market, the study adopts Rational Choice Institutionalism as the study path, exploring into how State governance conducts rational choice of adjustment in network control policies in response to the dual pressure from the rise of civil society and the network market with substantial interests, under the institutional framework, so that the online civil society will acquire the opportunities and space for development. The study applies three internet case studies and literature review in 2011 in addition to cross-demonstrate the rise and impact of online civil society through in-depth interview with scholars and experts. Finally the study discovers the following: 1. Mainland China builds a “Chinese information society” in response to the major “information globalization” promoted by Western countries. 2. The results of interaction between the internet and civil society not only facilitate the strengthening of progress in civil society but concurrently promote fast development in online civil society. 3. A gradually developed flexible adjustment to State network control policies result in development space with legitimacy to online civil society. 4. Highly developed economic market of internet will also produce positive influence on online civil society. At the same time to maintain high CTR rate on the website, enterprises online also walk on the end of control at times by keeping an active status on the internet forum. 5. Online civil society grows in the interaction of three forces, namely State governance, market economy and civil society, while maintaining interaction with the three. 6. The development of online civil society produces propulsive effects on the democratization of mainland China; however it is still subject to limitation of institutional and environmental factors.
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