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Title: 第七屆立法委員選舉結果對台南縣政治生態之影響
A Case Study of the7th Legislative Yuan Election and Its Impacts on Political Ecology of Tainan County, Taiwan
Authors: 曲兆祥 博士
Chu Chao-Hsiang PH﹒D﹒
Chao-Fu Huang
Keywords: 政治生態
Political Ecology
Single Member District System
Single Member District& Proportional Representation System
Single Non-Transferable Vote
ecology of political parties
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 「民主」常被視作一種政治制度,而選舉是民主政治最主要的實踐,人民可從選舉的運作情況去理解甚麼是民主政治,並表達人民對於政府政策的偏好。通常民主國家便是透過選舉制度,連結政府政策和人民意見間溝通的橋梁。我國立委選舉原採「複數選區單記非讓渡投票制」,但我國實施此選制以來,長期為人詬病的地方在於選舉風氣敗壞、金錢賄選、派系操縱、暴力脅迫、政治人物競選和問政走向極端,且黨紀難以約束黨籍立委等問題,不僅存在多年,並有日益嚴重之勢。2005年任務型國大修憲通過後,確定了第七屆立法委員選舉採單一選區兩票制,選舉制度的改革衝擊了各政黨,也改變了現行的政治生態。 2008年1月12日我國進行了第七屆立委的選舉,這是首次採取單一選區兩票制的選舉,區域立委、全國不分區及僑選立委投票率僅58.5%及58.28%,創下了新低的紀錄。選舉制度的改變,衝擊現有的政治生態,立委席次減半、複數選區改為單一選區,都直接衝擊各縣市選情。本文以台南縣為研究對象,第七屆立法委員選舉台南縣劃分為三個小選區,每個選區改採相對多數決制選舉一名立法委員,而選舉制度、選區劃分將對選舉結果產生重大的影響,關係到政黨生態變化。 本文並以過去台南縣歷次選舉各政黨的得票結果,假定選民投票意向不變,將選票重分配,模擬台南縣三個單一選舉區選舉的結果,與第七屆台南縣立委選舉結果作比較,驗證是否符合Duverger提出Duverger’s Law:「簡單的相對多數決有助於促成兩黨制」,即實施單一選區對於兩大政黨具有優勢。不同的選舉制度對於我國的政治生態會有著高度不安定的影響,單一選區兩票制的實施,將使我國的政治生態產生前所未有的改變。
Democracy is widely considered to function as a political system. Thus, the implementation of an electoral system represents the essence of democracy, in which people exercise their political power, by choosing their political leaders to act on their behalf. Through elections, people can understand how democracy works, have the freedom to express their political opinions about government's policies, and vote in their personal interests. Through elections, a connection can be established between the government and its people, which makes it possible for people to influence government's policies on issues which concern them. In Taiwan, legislators were formerly elected by popular vote through single non-transferable vote in multi-member constituencies. Under this electoral system, many ugly problems have come, including electoral corruption, vote-buying, threats of election violence, partisan squabbling, intensive intra-party competition, accusations of scandals or embezzlement, radical debates or even verbal abuse during a campaign process, and a weakening of party discipline. All the above shows that Taiwan's election culture and democratic development still needs further improvements. After an amendment in the Constitution of the Republic of China in 2005, Taiwan 7th Legislative Yuan Elections were conducted by a new single-member district parallel voting electoral system. The reform of the electoral system not only impacted all political parties in Taiwan, but changed the structure of members in Legislative Yuan. Taiwan 7th Legislative Yuan Elections were held on January 12, 2008 in the Republic of China. The elections were the first held under a new single-member district parallel voting electoral system. However, Total ballots cast showed the record-low turnout. The turnout rate was 58.28 % for the party-list ballots and 58.5 % for the constituency ballots, which involved the candidates of constituency, nationwide constituency and overseas Chinese. With the change of this new electoral system, the number of seats in the Legislative Yuan has been cut in half. The new system also switched to single-member constituency from multi-member consistencies. The study focused on 7th Legislative Yuan Elections in Tainan County. Under relative plurality voting system, Tainan County was divided into three constituencies. Either boundaries of districts or a different electoral system can have a tremendous effect on election results. The study is to compare the election results between the 7th legislative election in Tainan County and the hypothetical one (Tainan constituencies under relative plurality voting system). We assume people's political tendencies remain the same and a re-election will be held. We will see if it indeed matches Duverger's Law, a principle which asserts that a plurality rule election system tends to favor a two-party system. That is, the system will favor large parties, particularly KMT and DPP. A different electoral system, as a result, will be decisive to Taiwan's political landscapes over the next years.
Other Identifiers: GN0596101206
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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