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Titel: 兩岸跨域環境治理合作之探討──以霾害治理為例
A Research on the Cooperation of Trans-regional Environment Governance between Two Sides of Taiwan Strait: A Case of Haze Management
Autoren: 王冠雄
Wang, Kuan-Hsiung
Li, Qiao-Ran
Stichwörter: 跨域霾害
Trans-regional haze
Environmental governance
International environmental laws
Cross-Strait cooperation
Erscheinungsdatum: 2017
Zusammenfassung: 環境議題近年來備受世界各國的關注,尤其是霾害問題,已是不容忽視的重要議題。2015年,中國大陸央視前主播柴靜所製作,關於霾害真相的獨立調查紀錄片《穹頂之下》,在大陸各大社群網站播出後,引發全民關注。《穹頂之下》對於霾害的危害、成因和解決方案深入講解,更對於中國大陸的行政體制以及壟斷行業直言批判。事實上,在臺灣霾害也是大眾所關切的議題。 自2013年以來,持續大規模的霾害已經涵蓋了中國大陸四分之一的國土面積,約有六億人口受到影響,其中京津冀地區的污染情況最為嚴重。而臺灣地區的PM2.5問題主要出現在初冬,部分因為季風自境外帶入,也有來自內部的汙染源,包括人為的汙染源(汽機車及工業排放、裸地受風揚塵、以及民俗節慶等活動),此外也有自然汙染源(沙塵暴、火山爆發等)所造成。 基於以上關於兩岸霾害敘述,霾害治理此一議題有必要透過兩岸合作方能有所成效。過往在探討環境問題時,多以通過單一國家的力量予以解決,常常忽略了跨區域的合作。環境問題攸關兩岸全體人民的共同利益,唯有透過合作,在法律、政策以及作法等層面上建立有效機制,才能更好的造福兩岸人民。本研究首先論述什麼是環境治理、環境的重要性、環境治理的特色以及跨域治理霾害的必要性。其次,本研究將探討中國大陸與臺灣關於霾害的現狀以及處理對策。最後,透過研究其他地區跨域環境治理的案例分析,本研究認為兩岸可以試圖通過建立兩岸聯防聯控機制、確實落實《兩岸環境保護合作協議》以及公眾參與合作等方式來共同治理霾害。
Environmental issues are greatly concerned worldwide. Especially the haze has been an important issue that cannot be overlooked. In 2015, a documentary film Under the Dome directed by Chai Jing, a former China Central Television journalist, investigated the truth of haze. After this documentary film released on several main social websites in China, it drew attention from the public. Under the Dome elaborated the damages, causes and solutions of haze in depth, which was literally a blunt critique to China’s administrative system and monopolies. In fact, haze is also a crucial public issue in Taiwan. From 2013, a quarter of China has overwhelmed by lasting and large-scaled haze and around over six hundred millions people have been affected. Among all the polluted areas, Jingjinji (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) is the severest. Taiwan’s PM2.5 problem mainly occurs in early winter, which partly comes from foreign monsoon and partly comes from domestic pollutants, including human pollutant sources (mobile and industrial emissions, bare grounds dusts distributed by winds, and festival smokes) and natural pollutant sources (sandstorms and volcanic eruptions). Based on the descriptions above, to effectively cope with the issue of haze governance requires the cooperation of Taiwan and China. In previous environmental cases, most researches used single nation power to deal with problems, which often neglected the trans-regional cooperation. Environmental problems relate to the interests of both Taiwan and China. Thus, only through cooperation—such as building effective systems in law, policy and method—can the governments benefit the public of Taiwan and China. In the first place, this study illustrates the meaning, importance and characteristics of environmental governance as well as necessity of trans-regional governance. Second, this study discusses the haze condition and current strategies of China and Taiwan. Finally, through environmental governance cases in other regions, this study maintains that Taiwan and China can build mutual defense and control system, dealing with the haze problem by practicing “the Cross-Strait cooperation agreement on environmental protection” and public participation.
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