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Title: 由美國航行自由行動論歐巴馬政府南海政策執行之變化
U.S. Freedom of Navigation Operation: The Changing of the South China Sea Policy Implementation of Obama Administration
Authors: 王冠雄
Wang, Kuan-Hsiung
Ou Yang, Tzu-Chun
Keywords: 南海
South China Sea
Freedom of Navigation Operations
Freedom of Navigation
Obama Administration
Issue Date: 2018
Abstract: 在近年南海爭端情勢上升之矛頭多指向中國大陸在南海島礁的填海造陸行為時,美國以捍衛南海航行自由為號召,加大挑戰大陸在南海海域之主權主張。本文試圖從1979年美國航行自由計畫之制定為出發,探討到歐巴馬政府任內之航行自由計畫是否有何本質或戰略之改變。 相較過去航行自由計畫之任務內容僅公布年度挑戰國家與過度海域主張之項目,美國自2015年開始於南海所執行的航行自由行動已漸轉為公開方式,較過去更「頻繁」與「實際」地挑戰區域內過度海域主張之國家。本文研究發現,該政策轉變之考量是對大陸快速、大規模地填海造陸所引起之區域現況改變之擔憂,美國透過公布每次執行航行自由計畫行動的主要目的有三:第一,以維護航行自由之國際法之基礎;第二、維持美國在區域內的領導地位;第三,透過航行自由行動,向區域盟友提供安全保證。最後,歐巴馬政府所公開的四次航行自由行動交互挑戰了南沙群島與西沙群島中填海造陸後面積最大、或具(潛在)軍事化設施之島礁,更凸顯出歐巴馬政府在南海執行航行自由行動之高度戰略意涵。
The purpose of this study is to target on the U.S. Freedom of Navigation Operations (FONOP) since 1979 and on whether it has been changed fundamentally or strategically under President Barack Obama’s administration. As China’s construction of artificial islands and militarization activities in recent years that has raised the tension in the South China Sea, the United States keeps on conducting FONOPs to challenge the excessive maritime claims by the countries in the area to protect the right of freedom of navigation. Since 2015, the challenges to the claimants under FONOP in South China Sea has become more open, frequent, and precise. In view of China’s changing the status quo in the South China Sea, the purposes of the U.S. FONOPs to the public are as follows: first, to protect the right of freedom of navigation under international law; second, to maintain the U.S. leadership in the area; third, to provide security guarantee to allies in the area. As those four FONOPs challenged either the biggest or potentially militarized maritime features in the Spratlys and Paracels, it showed a clear strategic implication of the US South China Sea policy.
Other Identifiers: G060487003I
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