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Title: 大陸地區二00一年婚姻法之研究
A Study of PRC’S New Marriage Law (2001)
Authors: 劉昊洲博士
Liu﹐Haw Jow Ph. D.
Lu﹐Mao Shen
Keywords: 婚姻法
Marriage Law
underground lover (Baoernai)
divorce award 
void marriage
Issue Date: 2006
Abstract: 婚姻法是調整社會婚姻關係的法律規範,也是民法的重要部分,大陸現行實施之婚姻法,隨著經濟、社會之發展,人們的思想觀念也發生極大之變化,於婚姻家庭方面也產生許多新的問題。為進一步完善大陸地區社會主義婚姻家庭制度,達到完善民法之發展,在1980年頒布之《中華人民共和國婚姻法》基礎上加以修改與補充,於2001年4月28日大陸地區全國人大常委會二十一次會議上通過修訂新的中華人民共和國婚姻法。 此婚姻法與1950年、1980年頒布之婚姻法各具不同之時代使命,1950年婚姻法為大陸地區政權成立後之第一部法律,主要為反封建之傳統婚姻制度。1980年婚姻法為文革之後撥亂反正之法制重建,補充前法之不足。大陸地區改革開放之後,造成許多婚外戀—即所謂「包二奶」、「包二爺」之情況等新的婚姻家庭問題。因此,2001年婚姻法聚焦於包二奶違法問題之處理、離婚過錯損害賠償制度、禁止家庭暴力、虐待、遺棄、離婚規定之具體例示、子女探望權等婚姻家庭關係之規範。 此次新婚姻法對於婚外戀、重婚、非法同居做了不同的區別與界定,明示法規之處理原則,而離婚損害賠償制度更為婚姻法之重大突破。在中國之傳統行為上,大多數人對夫妻間婚內侵權行為缺乏應有的認識,不但侵權者認為正常,被侵權者也習以為常。家庭暴力已經成為全球性的問題,如何規範此社會問題已成為大陸地區重要的課題,制定一部家庭暴力防治法應是解決目前此一問題的根本措施。近些年來,世界各地婚姻暴力現象日益嚴重,婚姻暴力現象產生原因為多方面,涉及社會、個人、法律、國情等因素。本文對一夫一妻、重婚、家庭暴力、離婚損害賠償、無效婚姻、可撤銷婚姻等婚姻家庭制度之必要性、存在之缺失,淺談個人的看法。 兩岸結婚規定相同之處,均主張婚姻自由、兩性地位平等、一夫一妻制。相異之處主要為結婚形式、結婚年齡、近親禁婚之範圍、醫學上不當結婚之疾病、無效婚姻、可撤銷婚姻等均有不同之規範、不同之效果。 兩岸離婚之規定於離婚之性質、立法體制、法文用語、離婚之規定、離婚損害賠償制度、登記審查機關、對財產及子女離婚時的規定、復婚之有無等均有不同之規範。
Marriage law, a major component of the civil code, governs legal matters concerning marriage in society. As China’s economy and society progress, great changes have taken place in the Chinese’s belief in and attitude towards marriage. Unseen problems have arisen in family and marriage. In an attempt to perfect its socialistic legal institution of marriage, amendments and additions were made to Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China, which was promulgated in 1980, at its 21st meeting by the PRC National People’s Congress Standing Committee on April 28 2001. The new law has been written to live up to expectations very different from those in 1950 and 1980. The first one in 1950 was passed to dismantle the traditional feudalistic marriage system. The amendment in 1980 was completed after the Cultural Revolution to reinstate the rule of law. Since China opened its door for economic development, extramarital affairs have seemed more rampant than ever. At the core of the family and marriage problems lies “underground lover” (dubbed Baoernai or Baoerye by the Chinese). Therefore, the new law was written in 2001 mainly to tackle legal matters arising from underground lover, including alimony and divorce awards, domestic violence, abuse, abandonment, divorce, child custody and access. The new law redefines and distinguishes extramarital affair, bigamy, and unlawful cohabitation, and states distinct legal procedures accordingly. Divorce award is even hailed as a breakthrough in marriage law. Traditionally, the Chinese lacked the understanding of marital torts. Neither the wrongdoer nor the victim realizes the legal consequence of the wrongdoing. Domestic violence knows no boundary, even in China. It was identified as a social problem that the government recognized the need to solve by passing a law. In recent years, marital violence has been on the rise around the world for various reasons, including social, personal, legal and cultural. The author’s views are expressed in this study on monogamy, bigamy, domestic violence, divorce awards, void marriage, and voidable marriage. The legal systems on either side both assure their citizens the right to marriage, gender equity and monogamy. However, they are different in forms of marriage, legal age for marriage, disqualifying diseases for marriage and definition of consanguineous marriage, void marriage and voidable marriage. The legal systems on either side also differ in nature of divorce, legal institution, adoption of French terminology, divorce procedures, divorce awards, governing authorities, division of joint possessions, child custody and access, and resumption of marriage.
Other Identifiers: G00T2101021
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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