Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85198
Title: 影評人發行商偏誤及評價方向對消費者評價接受度之影響:消費者發行商認同為干擾因素
The Impact of Critics’ Distributor Bias and Review Valence on Consumers’ Acceptance of Critiques: The Moderating Effect of Consumers’ Identification with the Movie Distributors.
Authors: 王仕茹 博士
Dr. Shih-Ju Wang
陳明輝
Ming-Huei Chen
Keywords: 影評
電影評價
電影評價方向性
影評人發行商偏誤
電影發行商認同
Film Critic
Film Review
Review Valence
Distributor Bias
Distributor Identification
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 在電影評價環境中,當電影發行商企圖控制或者收買電影影評人的現象屢見不鮮時,回顧電影評價的文獻,卻鮮少研究關注電影發行商與影評人之間的利益關係。遲至2006年,Ravid, Wald, and Bsuroy等研究者才以市場資料為基礎,在電影評價研究文獻中首度驗證並提出電影影評人存在發行商偏誤(distributor bias)——影評人評價明顯正面偏袒於特定的電影發行商——之現象;然而,該研究將影評人在「統計」上所顯露的發行商偏誤對應於電影發行商的控制力與操弄,除了此一因果推論的基礎不足之外,同時獲得頗令人疑惑的研究結論:消費者會更依賴偏袒電影發行商的影評人。 為了瞭解電影影評人發行商偏誤在電影評價環境中的角色,以及檢驗「消費者—發行商組織認同」是否能夠干擾影評人發行商偏誤在消費者評價上的影響力,本研究以「影評人評價方向性」(正面/負面評價)、「影評人發行商偏誤」(無/有偏誤)以及「消費者發行商認同」(低/高認同) 為自變項,「消費者評價接受度」為因變數,進行實驗研究。研究結果顯示:在影評人提出正面評價的情境中,相較於有發行商偏誤影評人的評價接受度,無發行商偏誤影評人的評價接受度會顯著較高。因此,本研究獲得了和Ravid, Wald, and Bsuroy (2006)研究結論完全相反的結果——影評人發行商偏誤會顯著降低正面評價影響力,並不會讓消費者更依賴於有發行商偏誤的影評人。 除此之外,研究結果亦顯示:相較於低發行商認同的消費者,高發行商認同消費者除了能夠降低影評人負面評價的影響力之外,亦能提高影評人正面評價的影響力。而且,消費者與電影發行商之間的組織認同會促使消費者容忍組織的缺失,或者使消費者回復負面資訊對組織的影響,因而:當有發行商偏誤影評人提出負面評價時,相較於低發行商認同消費者的負面評價接受度,高發行商認同消費者的負面評價顯著較低;另外,當無發行商偏誤影評人提出正面評價時,相較於低發行商認同消費者,高發行商認同消費者的正面評價接受度顯著較高。這表示:當影評人無發行商偏誤時,消費者的發行商認同可以提高影評人正面評價的影響力;另一方面,當影評人有發行商偏誤時,消費者的發行商認同可以降低影評人負面評價的影響力。 整體而言,本研究認為:相較於控制或收買影評人評價,電影行銷人員策略性管理電影評價不可忽略甚至較佳的途徑為——發展並應用已存在於消費環境中的電影發行商認同,因為高發行商認同消費者可以提高無發行商偏誤影評人正面評價的影響力,此外,高發行商認同消費者可以降低有發行商偏誤影評人的負面評價影響力,而且在本研究中發現電影評價存在正向效果,因此,本研究建議電影發行商應該致力於發展消費者的電影發行商認同,提高低發行商認同消費者的組織認同程度,並降低或甚至不去收買或控制電影影評人,以維繫並強化電影影評人正面評價的影響力。
When motion picture distributors try to control or bribe film critics with specific benefit for gaining or exchanging positive film reviews, the existent film critic researches apparently ignore the relationships between distributors and film critics which named “distributor bias” by Ravid, Wald, and Bsuroy’s study in 2006. Ravid et al. (2006) analyzed the market data and found that moviegoers relied more on the film critics with distributor bias than on the critics without bias. This confused result violates the presumption of attribution theories that people have the motivation of pursuing truth and accuracy, and cause the problem of why people relying more on the biased critics. In order to comprehend the role of critics’ distributor bias in film critic circumstance, and to test whether “customer-distributor identification” moderated the impact of distributor bias on customer acceptance of film critic’s reviews, this study conducted by using experimental approach. The independent variables were film critic’s review valence (positive/negative), critic’s distributor bias (biased/non-biased), customer-distributor identification (low/high), and dependent variable was customer acceptance of film critic’s review. The experimental analysis show that acceptance of critic’s positive film reviews was higher for the film critics without distributor bias than for the film critics with distributor bias. This finding was opposite to the result of Ravid et. al. (2006), and verified that customers actually relied less on critics with distributor bias than critics without distributor bias. The analysis also indicated that acceptance of critics’ positive film reviews was higher compared to negative film reviews, and acceptance of critics’ negative reviews was lower for the high distributor identification customers than for the low distributor identification customers. When film critics possessed distributor bias, the acceptance of biased critics’ negative film reviews was lower for the high distributor identification customers than for the low ones. On the other hand, when film critics didn’t have distributor bias, the acceptance of non-biased critics’ positive reviews was higher for the high distributor identification customers than for the low ones. Overall, the study considered that developing and applying customer-distributor identification was a way of film critic management and should not be disregarded by movie marketors, this way was also less controversial than bribing film critics. This is because high distributor identification customers could strengthen the impact of non-biased critics’ positive film reviews, and could resist the impact of the biased critics’ negative film reviews on customers, additionally this study found positivity effect of film critics’ review. Therefore this study suggest that distributors should try to develop customer-distributor identification to enhance the identification level of low distributor identification customers, and tried not to bribe film critics for maintaining and consolidating the impact of film critics’ positive film rating.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0695120071%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/85198
Other Identifiers: GN0695120071
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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