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Title: 使用者創造內容商品化之分析- 以Facebook為例
The analysis of commodification of user-created content - A case study of Facebook
Authors: 王維菁
Keywords: Facebook
user-created content
immaterial labor
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract:   社交網站Facebook創立至今逾十年(2004~2014),從一個美國哈佛大學交友網站發展成為擁有12億名使用者的全球性社交網站。Facebook顛覆過去網路匿名之特性,不僅改變當代社會人們溝通、共享之意涵,其營利模式也與過去網站有所不同。2012年5月18日,Facebook以FB為代號於美國那斯達克股票市場上線交易,相當於宣告Facebook正式邁向營利之路。然而,Facebook資本積累模型係將使用者個人資料販賣予廣告主進行針對性行銷。當Facebook使用者不僅是平台內容生產者也是消費者,其所付出之勞動皆被平台與廣告主利用。   因此,本研究從政治經濟學批判取徑,以過去文獻與調查資料了解Facebook商業化歷程、營利模式與市場競爭,更重要的是從Facebook平台眾多商品形式之中,了解各項商品化過程與權力不均之所在,再進一步分析Facebook商品化對使用者及整體社會之影響。   研究結果發現,Facebook商業化歷程透過併購方式擴張於社交網站市場中之地位,且尚未出現可與之匹敵之競爭對手,廣告主或使用者皆須遵守平台之規則。其次,Facebook透過使用條款合理化對使用者資料之運用,販售資料範圍包含使用者個人資料、線上行為等,更甚者私人訊息也被記錄用以分類使用者喜好。再者,Facebook於2011年推出新型態廣告動態贊助(sponsored stoties),利用用戶之間的朋友關係進行廣告,並將使用者瀏覽之網頁空間欄位直接供廣告主競價,可視為社會關係之商品化。綜合而言,使用者於Facebook平台中付出實質勞動創造內容,勞動過程與成果皆被平台所利用,其中生產成果涉及使用者文化品味與美學標準,當Facebook與廣告主將之連結至消費社會之中,代表使用者的非物質勞動轉變為控制使用者消費之工具,且不自覺成為資本主義下加速商品流通的一員。更重要的是,無論個人資料、線上行為的監視與出售過程皆不主動告知。於此,使用者不僅是生產者更是消費者,付出免費勞動替平台生產價值的同時,又被做為商品販售。然而,平台種種cookie、追蹤技術的執行,讓使用者個人資料散佈至廣告與第三方平台,也代表使用者隱私資訊之終結。
The social networking site Facebook has founded more than a decade (2004-2014). It was a social site of Harvard University, and now become a worldwide social networking site which has 1.2 billion users. Facebook not only subverted the anonymity of internet, but also build a new profit model. Facebook applied to the initial public offerings on the NASDAQ stock market on May, 18 2012. At the same time, Facebook became a profit firm. However, capital accumulation on Facebook is based on commodification of users and their data. When Facebook's users are not only a platform for content producers but also consumers, their unpaid work are used by platform and advertise. Therefore, the thesis taken criticism of political economy approach and based on previous researchers and the surveys to analyze the commercialization process, profit model and market competition on Facebook. The most important, analyzing the commodity forms, the process of commercialization, economic structure and the power relation on Facebook. The results showed Facebook opened up the social networking market by merger and acquired other companies. Secondly, Facebook sell the user’s data and online behavior reasonable by the terms. Furthermore, Facebook launched sponsored stories in 2011, the new advertising campaign was work by friendship of users. In essence, free labor produces surplus value that is appropriated and turned into corporate profit. After all, Facebook users are double object of commodification. They are first commondified by corporate platform operators, who sell them to advertising clients, second, in an intensified exposure to commodity logic. Most online time is advertising time. Finally, Facebook is tracking user’s data and online behavior by cookie and share with third-party platforms. Finally user is not only a producer but also a comsumer.
Other Identifiers: GN060037004F
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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