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Title: 「小王子」家族與歸化城土默特部的開發
Other Titles: The Little Prince, the Tumote Tribe, and the Development of Guihua City
Authors: 李華彥
Lee, Hua-yen
Issue Date: Jun-2017
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
Abstract: 歸化城聚落形成於16世紀的明朝嘉靖中期,城牆等工程則完備於稍後的隆慶、萬曆之交, 此後直到清末, 都是蒙古地區與長城以南往來的重鎮,且是漠南草原的政治、商業和藏傳佛教中心。歸化城的演進歷史,研究者不少,但對於其興起背景、時間,和住牧當地的蒙古土默特部源流,始終不見明確的說法。本文比對17世紀初成書的蒙文譯本《阿勒坦汗傳》與明人寫的《萬曆武功錄.俺答列傳》,發現歸化城土默特部阿勒坦汗,即明朝封的順義王俺答, 為該城建立最重要的推手。阿勒坦出身元順帝後裔,是北元消失後,再度一統蒙古各部的第四位「小王子」達延汗之孫、巴爾蘇博羅特汗之子,從他身上可以充分體會到蒙人重視血緣、家系的傳統,及成吉思汗黃金家族名號在蒙古世界的號召力,他經由征戰,帶領宗族部落邁向強盛,中年則嚮往農耕定居生活,屢次嘗試與明通商,最終簽訂隆慶和議,使歸化城土默特部繁榮超越察哈爾的蒙古大汗本支,甚至隱隱領先王族。本文釐清15世紀「小王子」家族和瓦剌部也先家族的關聯,以了解阿勒坦汗與歸化城發展的軌跡,及其初期商貿範圍。
The formation of Guihua city (now known as Hohhot) first began to take place during the Jiajing era (1522-1567) of the Ming dynasty. During the Longqing (1567-1573) and Wanli (1573-1620) eras, the city grew in size and was fortified with city walls. Until the end of the Qing dynasty, it was an important juncture linking the Mongolian grasslands to the north and China to the south. The city has historically also been an important center for both commerce and Tibetan Buddhism. Though there have been many studies discussing the evolution of Guihua, few of them have considered the role played by the Mongolian tribe known as the Tumote in the city’s history. In this paper I seek to remedy this gap in our knowledge by examining The Biography of Altan Khan (阿勒坦汗傳), a work originally written in Mongolian in the seventeenth century and subsequently translated into Chinese, and “The Biography of Anda Khan,” a chapter from the Ming-dynasty work The Military Achievements of the Wanli Emperor (萬曆武功錄.俺答列傳). What I have found is that Altan Khan (阿勒坦汗), descended from the Golden Family of Genghis Khan, was a key player in the formation of Guihua. His grandfather was Dayan Khan (達延汗), who reunited many Mongolian tribes some one hundred years after the fall of the Northern Yuan dynasty (1368-1635). His father, Khan of Baersu Boluote, inherited Dayan Khan’s seat and wanted Altan to be different from all other nobles. Altan Khan was successful in war and strengthened the power of the Mongol tribes; but after reaching middle age he settled down to an agricultural life. He tried many times to establish commercial ties with the Ming court, and was finally successful after signing the Longqing Agreement, which allowed the Tumote to become even wealthier than the Mongolian Khan in the Chahar Plateau. This article also clarifies the relationship between the Esen (也先) family of the Wala tribe and the Dayan Khan, so as to better understand the link between Altan Khan (also known as “the Little
Other Identifiers: EB302A62-EE54-A482-2D68-B9D7C7B58886
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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