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Title: 先秦「九州」說及其對後世的影響─從兩漢刺史部到唐代地理文獻編纂
Other Titles: The “Jiuzhou” Concept in the Pre-Qin Period and Its Impact on the Later Generations: From the Department of Prefectural Governor in the Han Dynasty to the Geography Literature Compilation in the Tang Dynasty
Authors: 吳修安
Wu, Xiu-an
Issue Date: Jun-2016
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
Abstract: 本文主要考察以《禹貢》九州為代表的先秦「九州」說在漢唐時期的影響。儒家系統的「九州」說並非先秦時期唯一存在的「九州」說,它主要流傳於西北地域,而東南地域(海岱與長江中、下游)還流傳著非儒家系統的「九州」說, 在漢武帝「獨尊儒術」之前, 並不存在統一的「九州」觀。「九州」說的實質影響始於漢武帝,漢文帝時尚無依據《禹貢》九州進行「畫壄分州」的政治條件。十三刺史部的名稱與區劃主要就是依據《禹貢》與《職方》等儒家系統「九州」說,王莽改制更是強調「應經」,兩者差異在於對經典的依循程度有所不同,前者更多的是考量政治現實。漢末,監察區「刺史部」完成向行政區「州」的轉變,其關鍵在於中平五年的改制, 州牧與刺史被納入同一職官系統, 建安二年, 交阯「置牧立州」標誌轉變的完成。與此同時,現實的州制卻開始與「九州」說脫鉤,由於不斷的析置,州的數量與區劃已嚴重背離經典「九州」,更無法以之來描述與認識天下大勢,於是《禹貢》九州成為替代的地理概念,進而影響地理文獻的編纂。為了重建現實政區與經典「九州」的連結,唐代先後出現三種新的沿革地理書寫體例,成為後世地理文獻編纂的範本。
This article aims to investigate the impact of the “Jiuzhou” concept of the Pre-Qin Period illustrated by Yugong in the Han and Tang Dynasties. The Confucian “Jiuzhou” concept was in fact not the only existing one in the Pre-Qin Period; while the non-Confucian “Jiuzhou” concepts were prevalent in southeast part of ancient China. The uniform “Jiuzhou” concept did not prevail before the Emperor Wu’s policy of advocating exclusively the Confucian doctrine. That is to say, from the Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, the Confucian “Jiuzhou” concept brought about actual political effects. As a consequence, the titles andthe divisions of the thirteen departments of prefectural governor were based on the Confucian “Jiuzhou” concept expounded by Yugong and Zhifangshi. Even the Wangmang’s Reform still emphasized to abide by those ideas in the Classics. And in the Late Han Dynasty, the constitutional transfer from the “Cishibu” of inspection area to the “Zhou” of administrative area was completed. The key point lay in that ‘Zhou Mu’ and “Ci Shi” were incorporated into the same bureaucratic system by the 5th year of the Zhongping’s Reform. When ‘Jiao Zhou’ was established in Jiaozhi and its ‘Zhou Mu’ was appointed in the 2nd year of Jianan, the constitutional reform was put into practice. However, in consequence of this transformation, the actual administrative system began to deviate from the traditional ‘Jiuzhou’ concept. The incessant fragmentation of the administrative system rendered political actuality alienated from the Classic ‘Jiuzhou’ concept. As a result, ‘Yugong Jiuzhou’ became the substituted geographical concept, playing an important role in the compilation of the geographical literature. In order to corresponding the practical divisions with the Classic concept of ‘Jiuzhou’, there were three approaches of writing evolutionary geography available in the Tang Dynasty, which served as the guidelines in compiling geographical documents for the later generations.
Other Identifiers: D40A1E34-833F-312B-7017-40D6BFC2FA81
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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