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Title: 一八九五年以前鹿港教育史初探
Other Titles: The History of Education in Lukang Township before 1895
Authors: 單文經
Issue Date: Jan-1998
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 本文旨在描述一八九五年清廷割台於日本以前鹿港的教育狀況。全文除前言與結論外,分為五節。先就清代以前鹿港地區的教育加以敘述,再依據清代鹿港所設之社學與義學、書房、書院等教育機構之概況,並就鹿港士子參加科舉考試所獲之功名,加以記載。清代以前的鹿港地區,應該是一個由平埔族、原住民和漢人混合而成,並具海埠與移墾特色的農業聚落型社會。惟各項教育活動,皆因年代久遠,又無文獻可考,而無法確知也。據可徵的教育史料記載,荷西據台時代﹝一六二四至一六六一年﹞,荷、西人分別在台灣南北部的村落創辦教會學校教導原住民荷、西文字,並且傳播基督教理。以當時鹿港地區的原住民與荷人關係之密切,相信必定設有此種教會學校。唯尚須更進一步之證據,方可作此論斷。鹿港最早見諸文獻的學校教育設施,應為雍正與乾隆年間使設於馬芝堡鹿港街馬芝遴社的土著社學一所,為彰化縣轄下十九所土著社學之一。至於為讀書士子會文樂群場所的鹿港社學,則當以乾隆年間所成立之「拔社」及光緒初年設立的「蓮社」為最早。惟其確實成立之時間,成員與活動如何,皆尚待進一部之考證。其後,社學改為義學。當時,鹿港經常運作之義學共有六所。惟其址設何處,規制如何,皆有待考證。有關清代鹿港的書房及文開書院,文獻可考者較為齊全。就書房而言,日人據台之前,鹿港當設有書房三、四十間,本文僅就可徵之文獻,稍加敘述,但以可見鹿港書房教育之發達。就文開書院而言,先閒創建文開書院之艱辛,與夫慷慨捐輸獎掖文運之苦心,乃至其經營之情形,可自其議建、請建、勸捐、興建、竣工、釋奠、碑記、從祀、規模、經費、學規、院長、膏火、藏書等可稽之文獻,見其全貌。清代鹿港學子參加科舉考試而獲功名者,不乏其人。就初階的地方考試─童試而言,獲有秀才而進入府、縣、廳儒學肄業者,至少六十名;廩生至少有九名;經貢舉之貢生至少有十七名,監生至少有九名。就中階的分省考試─鄉試而言,獲有舉人之功名者,至少有十七名。就高階的京師考試─會試而言,獲有進士之功名者,至少有六名。武試獲秀才功名者二人,同獲進士及舉人者一人。是皆足證明清代鹿港學風之鼎盛。
Lukang Township is located in Chang-hwa County. It is believed that Lukang Township is one of the oldest townships reclaimed by Han Chinese in Taiwan. This paper describes the development of education in Lukang Townships before 1895, the year Taiwan was ceded to Japan. Aboriginals are believed to have been taught by Spanish and Dutch missionaries from 1624 to 1661, before Ming-Cheng expelled the Dutch troops. However, it has not been confirmed because there is not sufficient historical evidence. The earliest formal schools reported in an official document is“Tu-chu Hse-hseuh” (Aboriginal local school) established over the period of 1730's-1790's. At least, six“Yi-hseuh” (Free private schools) were run over the period of 1790's-1880's. These two kinds of schools offered elementary level instruction. Another kind of private school was named“Hse-hseuh” as well. It is a academic gathering place for learned men, but not for children. There were also at least two“Hse-hseuh” in Lukang Township. The historical materials for “Hsu-fang” (Private school) and“Wen-kai Hsu-yuan” (Wen-kai Institute) are more plentiful than the aforementioned schools. At least thirty to forty“Hsu-fang” were established.“Hsu-fang” were mostly single-room schools run by one teacher. The“Wen-kai Hsu-yuan” was established in 1824. It functioned as an officially academic meeting place. This paper describes in detail the proposal, construction, scale, study code, and management of“Wen-kai Hsu-yuan.” During the Ching dynasty, many Lukangites passed the official examinations. More than one hundred Lukangites passed the local level examinations, eighteen provincial, and seven national. This impressive record proves that Lukang Township had an honorable educational history.
Other Identifiers: 4C22D76A-11CF-07CE-DAD4-B23A649D8336
Appears in Collections:教育研究集刊

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