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Title: 德國二軌並立學校制度之發展與評析
Authors: 張炳煌
Ping-Huang Chang
Issue Date: Mar-2018
Publisher: 教育研究與評鑑中心
Center for Educational Research and Evaluation
Abstract: 研究目的本研究旨在探討德國二軌並立學校制度之發展,並評析改革方案之實施與影響。二軌並立學制係將文理中學以外的學校類型加以整合,形成文理中學與新的整合型學校類型並立的學校制度,近年來德國越來越多邦採用該模式改革學制,並已改變德國傳統學校制度的風貌,值得加以探究。本研究之目的為︰(1)瞭解德國學校制度由多軌分立朝向二軌並立的發展脈絡;(2)以Hamburg 和Berlin為對象,探討邦層級學校制度變革的推動歷程與政策內涵;(3)評析德國二軌並立學制變革的政策目標與實施成效,及其對臺灣中等教育發展的啟示。 研究設計/方法/取徑本研究採用文件分析,主要資料來源為官方文件、議案關係文書以及相關研究文獻。此外學校制度係屬各邦權力,故本研究再以Berlin 與Hamburg 為對象,進行個研究之分析。 研究發現或結論1. 二軌並立學制變革係為改進多軌分立學制的缺失。2. 二軌並立學制是妥協的方案,是略過文理中學的局部改革。3. 二軌並立學制重視學生的異質性,以期提升學生的學習成效。4. 二軌並立學制仍是分流學制,仍難克服傳統學制階層化的問題。 研究原創性/價值1. 本研究重視政策發展脈絡,系統性呈現德國學制的新近發展,並且由教育選擇的觀點探討分流學制的設計,豐富學制研究的內涵。2. 系統性回顧相關研究成果,重視實徵性研究結果,並據以評析二軌並立學制改革的實施與影響。3. 探討邦層級的學制變革,超過傳統以國家為分析單位的研究取向,深化比較教育研究。
PurposeThis study aimed to explore the development of the two-tiered school system in Germany, and to analyze its implementation and impact. The two-tiered school system was established by building up integrated secondary schools in addition to the Gymnasium (academic high schools). This approach is becoming increasingly popular in Germany, as many Länder (states) have adopted such model. In the field of comparative education, Germany is considered the prototype of a stratified school system. Moreover, its differentiated features and early selection have been retained for decades despite various reforms. The introduction of the two-tiered school system underlines the significant change in the German school system and it is of interest to examine its development. Therefore, this study examined (1) the context of structural reform of the school system in Germany, (2) policy formulation and the components of school system reform at the state level taking Hamburg and Berlin as examples, and (3) the policy goals and implement impact of the twotiered school system in Germany and its implication for Taiwanese secondary school system, systematic ally. Design/methodology/approachThis study analyzed various documents, including official records, statutes and relevant studies. In accordance with the Germany’s federal structure, the key level of action was the Länder. Thus, this study further examined the prominence of Land-level action on the school system. FindingsThe two-tiered school system (1) aimed to tackle the deficiencies of the multi-track school system, (2) was the result of compromise, as the distinct position of the Gymnasium was never endangered, (3) embraced the heterogeneity of learning groups, with the aim of increasing overall performance, and (4) is still a tracking system, making it difficult to overcome its stratified nature. Originality/value1. This study presented a systematic overview of the structural reform of the German school system, highlighting the
Other Identifiers: C4D6B426-0969-9DC9-F4DD-20C9F1AD0891
Appears in Collections:當代教育研究

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