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Title: 平等參與或特殊待遇?臺灣障礙者大學入學制度變遷之社會學分析
Other Titles: Equal Participation or Special Treatment?—A Sociological Analysis of Disabled Students’ Admissions to College in Taiwan
Authors: 詹穆彥
Chan, Mu-yen, Chang, Heng-hao
Issue Date: Nov-2018
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學特殊教育學系
National Taiwan Normal University Department of Special Education
Abstract: 平等是當代民主社會的核心價值,如何推動障礙者的平等權,是當代社會必須面對的挑戰。從1980 年代開始,在障礙權利團體的反歧視與教育權倡議下,障礙學生的教育權逐漸由歧視、慈善與形式平等,走向實質平等。除一般考試之調整,亦有特殊管道如甄試及獨立招生來增加進入高等教育的機會。隨著過去20 年高教的快速擴張,障礙學生進入大學的機會擴增,在學人數顯著增加。藉由不同的平等模式分析,本文檢視臺灣障礙學生大學升學政策的發展歷程與侷限。我們認為,身心障礙學生升學大專校院甄試的制度在大學入學困難、系所直接歧視障礙者且缺乏考試調整的時代,的確發揮提供身心障礙學生更多念大學的機會的功能。然而,並不是所有系所都開放特殊名額,且開放的名額是以障礙類別錄取。本文認為應該以平等的結果,即障礙學生是否得到高品質的教育且融入大學生活,重新檢視甄試制度的效果。最後,本文主張《聯合國障礙者人權公約》的人權模式及合理調整的設計能夠挑戰現行障礙學生進入大學政策的侷限,公約所主張的融合平等,在實質平等的基礎上,能更細緻地處理平等權議題。
Equality is a core value in a democratic society. Promoting equality for people with disabilities is an inevitable challenge in contemporary society. Since the 1980s, disability right organizations in Taiwan have been advocating for nondiscrimination and rights for higher education. Models of educational rights for disabled students have gradually shifted from discrimination, charity, and formal equality to equal opportunities and substantive equality. Purpose: Due to the rapid expansion of higher education in the past two decades, college entrance channels have expanded and the number of disabled students has increased considerably. This article presents an analysis of the development of diverse college entrance channels for disabled students in Taiwan, the intrinsic limitations of these channels, and the related models of equality. In particular, Taiwan has a special college entrance examination for disabled students; for this examination, each department in a college has special quotas for students with selected types of disabilities. In the past, some colleges have discriminated between disabled students and other students and disallowed disabled students from applying for admission; moreover, appropriate disability-related adjustments were not available in general college examination. Therefore, this special examination system has opened up opportunities for disabled students to enter college. Method: This paper uses historical comparative method and collects historical documents including legislative records, newspaper archives, and newsletters from disability rights social movement organizations. Results/Findings:In this paper, we present that the special college entrance examination is a result of the disability rights social movement mobilization against disability-based discrimination. However, we argue that a high number of disabled students in a college does not necessarily promise substantive equality for students with disabilities. The special college entrance examination is a segregated system that limits disabled students’ choices and also allows departments in colleges to select students on the basis of the type of disability and not their capabilities. The support extended to disabled students is insufficient,and disabled students are still facing substantial obstacles in the current system. We argue that to achieve substantive equality and inclusive equality, the education policy for disabled students should reevaluate the special entrance examination system and focus on the quality of education and inclusive college environment for students with disabilities. Because the government of Taiwan has domesticized the Convention on Rights for Persons with Disabilities, the reform of the current college education system should apply the human rights model and should not exclude students on the basis of their disabilities. In higher education, an accessible environment and teaching should be implemented, and individualized reasonable accommodation should be provided for students with disabilities in colleges. Conclusions/Implications: Finally, we argue that to ensure that the education policy supports the right to education for disabled students, the outcome of the special quota in the special entrance examination system should be evaluated and the equality of result and inclusive equality in colleges should be analyzed.
Other Identifiers: C6DD1887-ADB7-8880-1B7A-0A7D36A0F6C2
Appears in Collections:特殊教育研究學刊

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