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Title: 「康國琵琶」樂器圖像考
Other Titles: A Musical IconologyResearch of “Kang-Guo Pipa (Lute)”
Authors: 史辰蘭
Shir-Chen Lan
Issue Date: Sep-2016
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學美術學系暨美術研究所
Department & Graduate Institute of Fine Arts, NTNU
Abstract: 古代圖像記錄了人類文明的生活,一目了然的本質與文獻相輔相成,卻能填補文字記錄闕如的空白,銜接史實失落的環節處。本文肇因於琵琶研究中曾出現一款型態獨特的琵琶,中國學者稱之為「變體琵琶」、「過渡階段的琵琶」與「新品種琵琶」等,然而在上個世紀陸續出版了幾種與音樂史圖像相關的圖集後,可以發現在絲路上曾出現幾件與學者所說同型態的琵琶,最早可溯源至西元一世紀中亞的康國,並以此溯源地命名為「康國琵琶」,說明此琵琶並非學者所稱發展不成熟的琵琶;在今日來看,與盛行於歐洲文藝復興並通用於今日傳統民謠中的西特琴(cittern)型態一致。康國琵琶的特殊性可從Hornbostel & Sachs (以下簡稱H-S)1的樂器分類法說明此其構建的組成,與同樣具有梨形音箱的魯特類樂器家族比較音箱形制的美學係有所不同。本文將康國琵琶橫貫中亞、新疆石窟與墓葬壁畫的圖像資料,證明此琵琶是具有獨立發展史的彈絃樂器。此樂器在中古時期以前稀有的圖像遺跡中,說明其並非在中國本土發展的樂器,今日也已不復見於中國的音樂實踐,但仍持續運用於今日的中亞音樂與西方傳統民謠的彈弦樂器,足見此樂器是流傳了數千年的古老彈絃樂器。
The ancient iconography recorded the living civilization of human history that may well present as complementary documents towards the absence of literature by its sheerinstance of visual substance.Considering the limited literature of origins of ancient pipa, or Chinese lute, the subject “Kang-Guo Pipa” denominated by author according to its ancient origins of the state of “Kang” in middle Asia (range including current Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan) were once practiced for over centuries in the north west of ancient China, is a specific body type of lute which has a counterpart known as “cittern” in modern times, has several evidences from the ancient musical iconography along the silk road since AD1that still remain unrecognized will be discussed. The Chinese scholar applied terms to this specific type of lute as “mutant pipa” or“transitional pipa” to related its derivation from a native plucked instrument ruan-hsiean (阮咸) pipa, whereas the evidence of Kang-Guo pipa iconography controvert these views. Hornbostel & Sachsmusical instrument classification system will be applied to illustrate the distinct composition of Kang-Guo pipa as well as to look up similar pear-shape plucked lute such as pipa and mandolin to sort out the difference among others. Furthermore, the iconography examination of Kang-Guo pipais the main body of this article will be elaborated according to the chronological order along with the ancient and current states where the iconography evidences came from.
Other Identifiers: AC08916E-189B-4DEE-68FE-8326AE9FC8E7
Appears in Collections:藝術論壇

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