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Title: 地方農識的書寫與呈現:以十九世紀北臺地區稻米品種變遷為例
Other Titles: Writing and Displaying Agricultural Knowledge: The Case Study of Rice Breeds Transition of Northern Taiwan in 19th Century
Authors: 蔡承豪
Chang-Hao Tsai
Issue Date: Dec-2013
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學台灣史研究所
Graduate Institute of Taiwan History
Abstract: 水稻經營是清代臺灣土地開發中最重要的項目,除涉及民生溫飽,更含括租稅、貿易及土地環境變貌等課題,故論述者眾。然水、陸稻並非僅有單一次品種,在尚無強大國家力量或商業機構可主導品種配置的時代,種植何類稻種,常是基於多重考量下交會的結果,另品種隨著種植日久,亦會產生雜交變異,再衍化出新品種,故數量常甚龐雜,種植相異品種的田地,也產生差異的稻浪景緻。但對於時人採用何種稻種,其特色為何,又如何進行配置,現今研究探討卻相對欠缺。稻種既攸關層面甚廣,往往於地方志中〈物產〉篇內,有一定的篇幅加以記載,在若干檔案、契約中,亦有所提及。這些被記錄的品種,所呈現的特性及運用狀況,可成為觀察清代農事經營的切入指標,也一定反映了當時官員文士等編纂者的農業知識。北臺灣地區在人文與地理環境上有其特殊性,在十九世紀期間並有數本方志出版,正可資作為一獨立觀察的區域,瞭解稻作品種的變遷中所呈顯的農業開墾技術的部分樣態,及官員文士對地方農業品種之書寫概念體系。據本文之研究,十九世紀北臺灣方志共記載47種品種,雖與20世紀初的回溯調查相較,數量係屬偏低。且方志中記錄品種的方式,多以外觀、時節及栽植環境進行描述,尚乏系統性的篩選標準。然當中記錄33種新增稻種,比例甚高,突顯此一地區之特色;且無論新舊品種,被記載者多為質佳量豐或高適應性的品種。故其書寫仍可資反映十九世紀北臺灣稻作經營時,尋求豐產、因地制宜,以及季節調配等地方農業知識特色。
Rice cultivation was one of the most important land developments in Qing Dynasty Taiwan. Not only was rice a valuable food, since it was also connected to the tax, trade, and transformation of landscapes, numerous researchers continued to discuss this subject. However, paddy and upland rice has more than one variation. During the time when neither dominant political power nor business organizations had the ability to determine the breed to be grown, breed selection involved the consideration of multiple aspects. In addition, long cultivation duration of one breed might result in hybrids or variations. New species were therefore derived and created, and the number of new breeds was innumerable. Thriving crops might even depict patterns and waves of rice that were composed of differing breeds.Nonetheless, few studies have discussed which rice breed was favored in the period, what were the characteristics of the breed, and how was the breed distributed. Rice cultivation was a comprehensive knowledge recorded in chapters concerning local product chronicles. Moreover, it was quoted in several documents and contracts. The characteristics of the recorded breeds are the starting point for observing agricultural management in Qing Dynasty, and the records also serve as an indicator of the level of knowledge for government officials and intellectuals.The northern Taiwan is unique in its cultural and geographical environments. Several local chronicles were published during the 19th century. This period can be observed independently to examine the transition and change of rice breeds, several aspects of the agricultural cultivation techniques, and how government officials and intellectuals recorded and depicted local breeds. Based on this study, a total of 47 breeds were recorded in the local chronicle in 19 century Northern Taiwan. This number might be few, compared to recursive studies in the beginning of the 20th century. Furthermore, there was no systematic standard for the
Other Identifiers: 59DE1E2C-8266-A840-B0BC-2228881DAD8D
Appears in Collections:師大台灣史學報

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