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Title: 全真道王重陽的「身心觀」研究
Other Titles: A Study of the Theory of Body and Mind of the Quanzhen Master Wang Chongyang
Authors: 康自強
Kang, Tzu-chiang
Issue Date: Mar-2015
Publisher: 國文系
Department of Chinese, NTNU
Abstract: 全真道王重陽的「身心觀」是他對人類生命的認識。人類生命可從「性命」──亦即精神與身體──兩方面展開思索:在精神部分,重陽思想不同於傳統道教,以為成仙的重點不在肉身不死,而是將視野聚焦在內在心性,強調以靜功掘發人人本具之「真性」。在身體部分,則可看到重陽思想對既有內丹學說的繼承與轉化:就繼承而言,重陽的身體鍛鍊功法可見於時代較早的道經,尤其是晚唐五代的鍾呂道派;就轉化而言,重陽尤重主體之心性,故視性命雙修的目的為成就「一靈真性」,跟鍾呂道派使用的術語「陽神」不同,但在全真後學的〈五篇靈文注〉中,兩個術語已被混用。雖然身心各有功法,但重陽思想也重視身心兩端之交涉互動,而非身心二分,僅關注「心性」或「身體」,恐怕無法掌握重陽思想之全貌。若能身心合觀,即可發現重陽所言之成仙,實為一從「身體的精神化」到「精神的身體化」的歷程。總之,本文以為掌握重陽之身心觀,可以更完整地認識其「全真」宗旨。
The theory of body and mind of Quanzhen master Wang Chongyang presents his understanding about human life. He thinks that we can know our life from two aspects --mind and body. In his opinion, the former is the center of his teaching and the ‘true essence’ (真性) of every human. Being different from the traditional Taoism which pursues the eternity of human body, he puts more emphasis on the inner purity and peace of mind. The latter inherits the discourses of neidan school and creates a new end of cultivating mind. As a successor, he absorbs the body techniques in the older Taoist texts, especially from the Zhong-Lu school, which arises between the Later Tong and the Five Dynasties. As to the creation, he pays much attention to the mind, so the end of cultivating body and mind is ‘the ultimately true essence’ (一靈真性), not ‘the yang spirit’ (陽神) of Zhong-Lu. However in the Annotations of Five Holy Essays (五篇靈文注) written by the heirs of Quanzhen school, they use the two different terms to predicate the ultimately spiritual entity formed through practicing the Taoist techniques completely. Furthermore, he emphasizes the relation and interaction between body and mind; therefore the modern researchers should not investigate his discourses only about body or mind. The study states that if one reflects on the Wang’s discourses both on body and mind, he will find that it is a process from ‘physical spiritualization’ to ‘spiritual embodiment’. In short, his discourses on interaction between body and mind are a key to deeply understanding the meaning of ‘Quanzhen’ (the true essence preservation).
Other Identifiers: 4B8AB1ED-D37C-1E20-A86A-C1F0D74CE341
Appears in Collections:中國學術年刊

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