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|其他標題:||War and Animals: A Social Cultural History of the Taipei Zoo in Yuan-shan|
Graduate Institute of Taiwan History
This essay, focusing on the Taipei Zoo in Yuan-shan and its role during the World War II, investigates how animals were utilized as military resources by the Japanese empire in wartime by examining animal propaganda, the animal disposal policy, and animal memorial services. Being militarily mobilized during the war period, the zoo became a place to promote the idea of ＂war moral＂ which the government attempted to publicize and also a means of spiritual mobilization. Animal exhibitions, protections, or memorials were all considered as patriotic activities. The government skillfully manipulated animal propaganda to reinforce the military's personal emotions toward the empire in order to bind the front line and the rear area tightly for a patriotic purpose. Besides, with enforcing the animal disposal policy, animal sacrifice had been rationalized by the government. Under the shadow of food shortage and air strikes, this policy could be even used as a tool of psychological warfare. As for animal memorial services, animals' contributions to human beings were praised and emphasized through these services. During wartime, they showed the condolences for military animals. In the postwar period, they turned to recall happiness that animals had brought to human beings. Meanings and values of animals were redefined by the government in wartime. Those animals which were beneficial to wars would be cherished with good cares and propagated; however, those worthless ones would be killed instead. Holding animal memorial services was in fact a way to intensify and rationalize these actions. The more animals were exploited, the more services would be held. In other words, animals participated in human warfare as well. Therefore, the relationship between human beings and animals during wartime had been reconsidered and rewritten.
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