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Title: 禪門散聖與文殊化身:寒山形象在宋代禪林中的轉化及其意涵
he Transformation of Hanshan's Image in Song Dynasty Chan Buddhist Literature
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學國文學系
Issue Date: 1-Sep-2014
Abstract: 寒山在唐代為一謎樣人物,呈現寒巖貧士的形象。到宋代,他被放入禪宗系譜中,形成禪門散聖與文殊化身兩種形象。他是如何與為何會從寒巖貧士演變到宋代禪門中形成與前不同的兩種身分和形象轉化呢?筆者發現,透過禪宗文獻不斷地引用與改寫,寒山被逐步歸為遊戲應化的「散聖」,有其瘋癲特質的宗教意涵。另一方面,從歷史性的文殊信仰發展脈絡,探究「寒山文殊」封號成立的內在意義和宗教文化成因,並從寒山、文殊之間對應的精神特質,提出二者產生連結的可能解釋。整體而言,寒山被形塑成以遊戲人間的散聖作為另類的示現,展現禪宗活潑而生活化的修行特色,以自身作為聖、俗泯然,任運施化的一種表演。而其自性天真,正相應於文殊的童行純潔,同樣具備自性本具的活力和智慧;外現瘋癲之狀,與文殊內在的智慧特質,正是顯相與本質不二的具體展現。
Hanshan was an enigmatic figure of the Tang Dynasty who originally possessed the image of a poor scholar or a noble, unsullied person. In the Song Dynasty, Hanshan came to be included in Chan Buddhist lineages, where he was depicted either as a mad Chan sage or as an avatar of "Manjusri." How and why did he attain these two identities and have his image transformed during the Song? How did he come to possess status and religious significance in Chan Buddhist lineages? Based on a review of Chan Buddhist literature, this paper asserts that Hanshan was gradually categorized as a "mad sage," a wild figure in the laymen's world, in order to reflect the religious meaning of madness. In addition, the paper explores both the intrinsic meaning as well as the religious and cultural causes influencing the development of the appellation "Hanshan Manjusri." It attempts to explain the establishment of a connection between Hanshan and Manjusri by examining their corresponding spiritual characteristics. In short, the interpretation of Hanshan as a mad sage with a playful attitude towards life represents an alternative characterization that reflects the everyday practices of Chan Buddhists. Although Hanshan is a sage, he acts like an ordinary person and he practices Buddhism in a natural manner in order to transform others. Hanshan's intrinsic innocence corresponds to the pureness of Manjusri. They both possess vigor and intelligence. The external madness of Hanshan and the internal acuity of Manjusri demonstrate the non-duality of phenomena and the nature.
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_B0138_01_003
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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