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The Impact of Cultural Transition on the Development of Chinese Adult Learners' Critical Thinking
|Abstract:||臺灣社會近幾十年來，由於現代化及政經改革，逐漸邁向民主與多元化，在這樣 的過程裡，伴隨著社會規範與生活型態的轉型。在一個民主與多元化的社會，批判思考益形 重要，長久以來我國的學校教育並不重視學生批判思考的發展，因此成人批判思考的發展就 成為成人與繼續教育關注的重點。本研究即在探討文化變遷對於中國成人批判思考發展的影 響，並嚐試找出影響批判思考發展的個人因素，及成人學習情境中的因素。希望藉此瞭解成 人批判思考發展的內在歷程，以及如何透過成人教育協助成人批判思考的發展。 研究方法採深度訪談， 以二十六位從臺灣前往美國 Wisconsin-Madison 的成人為對象，受 訪者依其在美國居住時間的長短分為三組，其中十位在美國居住少於一年，八位在美國居住 一至兩年間，其餘八位居住兩年以上。訪談內容在於受訪者如何處理其生活中重大事件的內 在思考歷程，以及影響其處理該事件的個人與情境因素。深度訪談所收集的資料做內容分析 ，包括批判能力與批判態度的等級化，依此將受訪者批判思考的發展劃分為六個持續漸進的 等級。批判思考發展程度的高低作組間比較，五個月後再作追蹤訪談，以瞭解受訪者在美國 居住時間的長短是否影響其批判思考的發展。 分析結果發現，在美國居住時間的長短影響中國成人批判思考的發展，文化的變遷、美國文 化與學習情境的某些因素有利於批判思考的發展。影響批判思考發展的個人因素包括性別、 教育程度、學習領域，及個人特質（經由個人認知型態，自我概念、與他人關係、對知識的 信念等反映出來）。關於影響批判思考發展的學習情境因素則包括師生關係、同儕關係、教 學方法、及學習氣氛等。|
Purpose: A desirable feature of the process and outcome of adult and continuin education is enhancement of critical thinking. Cultural influences on development of critical thinking are reflected in the experience of Chinese adults from Taiwan who move to the US. This study explored shifts in critical thinking associated with length of residence in Madison, Wisconsin. Procedure: Twenty six adults from Taiwan were interviewed in Madison. About one third had been is the US for less than one year, about one third for one to two years, and the remainder for more than two years. The interview focused on their report of their thinking about a critical event, plus information about personal and situational factors. Content analysis of interview transcript information about their thinking about the critical event, included scale scores based on interviewer ratings of critical abilities and attitudes, which were used to classify respondents into six levels of critical thinking. Level of critical thinking was compared with length of residence to estimate shifts from cross sectional data. The research design also included a five month follow up to find out if this longitudinal data suggested developmental changes or indicated other explanations. Findings: Respondents with longer residence tended to be rated more highly on level of critical thinking, and the follow up ratings indicated that some respondents were rated more highly after five months. Associated personal factors included age, gender, educational level, field of study, and personal characteristics reflected in personal cognitive style, sense of self, transpersonal relationships, and beliefs about knowledge. Associated situational factors included teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, instructional methods, and the atmosphere of the learning environment. Implications: The main implications for practice included planning teahcer in-service programs to advocate cultural sensitivity and responsive teaching approaches, planning cultural adult education programs responsive to societal changes and personal development, increasing public understanding about adult development and learning, increasing accessibility to higher education for adults, and preparatory education contributions.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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