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Title: 胡適的實驗主義與歷史理念
Other Titles: Hu Shih's Pragmatism and His Idea of History
Authors: 劉紀曜
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2009
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
Abstract: 胡適(1891-1962)實驗主義(pragmatism)在方法論上是一種以唯名論(nominalism)為基礎的個人主義(individualism)。強調個人的經驗、興趣、意志與目標,是形成社會與歷史的基本因素。更強調個人「創造的智慧」與「智能的個性」,特別重視個人的思想能力與思想的作用。胡適的主知主義是唯名的、開放的、「投影」於未來的,與儒家本質的、封閉的、投射於過去的主知主義,具有明顯的斷裂性與革命性,這是胡適實驗主義歷史意義之所在。胡適實驗主義的思想特質,主要表現在其方法論、真理論、實在論與歷史理念之上,胡適的歷史理念強調研究人類事務如何發生的「歷史態度」(the genetic method),注重「現在」在歷史過程中的關鍵作用與地位,強調「評判的態度」,主張「重新估定一切價值」,再造中國文明。胡適的歷史理念強調尊重事實的科學精神與科學方法,反對歷史的整體論與調和論,強調個人在歷史過程中的行動力與創造性,歷史是一種沒有保證的「冒險事業」。本文強調,對胡適實驗主義思想特質及其歷史理念的正確理解,是掌握胡適整體思想及其意義的核心基礎與條件。
The theme of this article is the characteristics of the pragmatism of Hu Shih (1891-1962) and its power to work on his idea of history. The foundation of the pragmatism of Hu Shih is a methodological individualism and nominalism. In Hu Shih's point of view, the basic factors of human society and history are the interests, wills, goals, and experiences of the individuals as the free agents. Therefore, the most important capacity of the individual is the Creative Intelligence, and the most important thing of the individual is the formation of the Intellectual Individuality. The intellectualism of Hu Shih is nominal, open, future-directed, and the intellectualism of Confucianism is realistic, closed, past-directed, there is a revolutionary rupture between the two. The genetic method is the core of Hu Shih's pragmatic idea of history. He takes the present as the key position and the turning point of the historical progress. For Hu Shih, the critical attitude, as the Nietzschean transvaluation of all values, is the most important thing in the historical studies. But, respect the real facts is the first principle of the historical studies, and also the essence of the scientific spirit and the scientific method. For Hu Shih, history is created by the individuals as the free agents, history is fragmentary, there is no such a thing as the necessary totality of history, history is an adventure without guarantee.
Other Identifiers: C448C39A-9B8E-05FB-B5BD-13063402D241
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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