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|其他標題:||The Study of the Provincial Director of Education in the Qing|
Department od Education, NTNU
The institution, which assigned the special officer for managing local education and examination, dates from Sung Dynasty (960-1279) China. The officer always acted as administrator, educationalist, and controlling inspector. In Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the role of the director of education sent to the province by order of the emperor was similar, however, were But there was some difference as follows:1. Every director held the jinshi academic degree (進士)and most of themwere scholars with a high literary degree in the National Academy (翰林院) 2. The director was equal with the govrenor-general (總督)and governor (巡撫)within the province.3. His main tasks were to keep school discipline, to supervise the lower degree holders of gentry, especially the shengyuan status (生員), and to uphold the gentry's rights. 4. During the three-year tenure, he was instructed to make the circuit of the province twice in order to hold sueykao or kekao examinations (歲考、科考), and to select candidates to compete for the juren degree (舉人). For illustrating the director's role and task clearly, this article specially makes a case study of Change Chih-tung, the great statesman and educator.When the number of western schools increased and traditional examinations were cancelled, the director was replaced by commissioner of education during Late Qing's reform. In spite of this, it is meaningful to inquire the original intention and styles of the educational administration during Imperial China onthe study of the director of education.
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