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Title: Focus System of Mayrinax Atayal: A Syntactic, Semantic and Pragmatic Perspective
Other Titles: 汶水泰雅語焦點系統:語法、語意及語用研究
Authors: 黃美金
Lillian M. Huang
Issue Date: Oct-2001
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學研究發展處
Office of Research and Development
Abstract: 泰雅語是台灣南島語言的一支,包括兩個主要方言Squliq和C'ulic',苗栗泰安鄉汶水泰雅語即屬C'ulic'方言。本篇論文在探討該方言的焦點系統。「焦點系統」乃指句子中的文法主詞(亦即焦點名詞片語)和動詞間所呈現的呼應系統,是大多數西部南島語言共通特性之一。這系統不會因人稱、性別或數目而有形式上的差異。在汶水泰雅語中,動詞詞綴m-, ma-, si-, -um-, -an, -anay, -ani, -aw, -ay, -i, -un 及 O 組成這焦點系統的基礎。就語法分佈而言,隨著一個句子為陳述句或祈使句、肯定句或否定句、主事焦點句或非主事焦點句、實現句或非實現句等,上述不同的詞綴即會被使用。例如:肯定陳述句會利用m-, ma-, -um-及 O,而祈使句及否定句會用 O;又主事焦點句會用m-, ma-, -um-, O and m-/ma-/-um- … -ay,而非主事焦點句會用到其餘的詞綴。在語意上,不同動詞焦點詞綴標示不同程度的及物性(或靜態性)。例如m-和-um-標示高及物性的動詞,ma-和 O 則用以標示較低及物性、甚或靜態性動詞。如是,構成一「及物性--靜態性」的Coatinum。另外,在語用功能上,當主事參與者是說話者本身時,不管聽話者或第三人稱個體是否參與,也不論句中是否有助詞guw/qi'出現,含projective焦點標記的結構即可能表徵不同意涵,包括說話者或事件參與者的意願、建議甚或責任,禁止或要求,及「臨近」等語意。
Atayal, one of the Formosan languages, consists of two major subgroups: Squliq and C?uli?. The present paper attempts to present a syntactic, semantic and pragmatic analysis of the focus system of Mayrinax Atayal, a C?uli? dialect spoken in Chinshui Village, Taian Hsiang, Miaoli Prefecture. The term 'focus system' used here refers to a kind of agreement system between the subject (i.e. the focused noun phrase) and the verb, though showing no person, gender or number agreement between them. Such an agreement system is one of the characteristics shared by many western Austronesian languages. In Mayrinax Atayal, verbal affixes such as m-, ma-, si-, -um-, -an, -anay, -ani, -aw, -ay, -i, -un and O form the basis of the focus system. In terms of syntactic distribution, i.e. whether sentences are declarative or imperative, affirmative or negative, agent focus (AF) or non-agent focus (NAF), and/or realis or irrealis, different affixes named above are used. For example, AF markers m-, ma-, -um- and O are used in affirmative declarative sentences while O is used in imperative and/or negative sentences; m-, ma-, -um-, O and m-/ma-/-um- … -ay are used in AF constructions while the others are used in NAF constructions. Semantically, verbs manifesting events of different degrees of dynamicity (or stativity) are marked with different focus markers. For instance, m- and -um- mark verbs of higher dynamicity whereas ma- and O designate verbs of lower dynamicity and even of stativity, all of which constitute a dynamic-stative continuum then. Pragmatically, whether the involved agent participant(s) is the addresser alone, the addresser and the addressee, or a third party, and whether the particle quw/qi? is present or not, structures containing projective focus markers may convey varying meanings, such as the addresser's or the involved participant's volition, suggestion or obligation, forbiddance or request, as well as the semantics of immediacy.
Other Identifiers: BFD3C972-7D83-C9D4-BEB9-7448CEC3EC1B
Appears in Collections:師大學報

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