從成人到成神:明代吳鵬的生平事蹟與修行轉昇研究 From Manhood to Becoming a Deity: A Study on Wu Peng's Life And His Taoist Practice to Godhood-Promotion in the Ming Dynasty

Chen, Yu-Fu
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論文題目訂為《從成人到成神:明代吳鵬的生平事蹟與修行轉昇研究》,旨在經由《年譜》、《文集》和《四庫全書》與地方志等史料文獻的搜集、比對和考證,輔之以福建閩中地區田野調查的資料,研究明代吏部尚書吳鵬,如何從成人之道的完滿,發展到成神之道的圓滿,從成人到成神又具備哪些條件與過程。即是究竟具備哪些主、客觀條件:主觀層面包括吳鵬的生平事蹟、仕途經歷、交友關係、神異經驗與塑造的人格特質等;客觀層面則涉及明代的歷史脈絡、時空背景、社會氛圍等特殊的機緣,以及對於江南道教、佛教的影響,使得江南一帶與瑜珈法教的有識之士或群體,肯定吳鵬的修煉與貢獻,而將之納入瑜珈法教神譜中視為傳法祖師。  本文聚焦於「從成人到成神」和「吳鵬的生平事蹟與修行轉昇」,在緒論與結論之外,再分為五章:第貳章、第參章,考察吳鵬的家世淵源、年少經驗與仕途經歷,進而擴展到親緣、地緣與業緣等社會關係網絡,解決《明史》等史料文獻,對於吳鵬偏頗的評價,以及《明史》為何未收錄〈吳鵬列傳〉的課題,發現晚明的黨爭相當激烈,以及《明史》編修者的問題,導致閱讀明代的史料文獻,都具有未盡公允之處,通過多方的視角以建構本文判讀史料文獻的標準,進而深入到各章的考察。第肆章、第伍章,關注吳鵬從成人到成神,具備的主、客觀條件,一是賑饑、治河與禦叛,符合《禮記》功烈於民的標準,成為生祠的祠廟神。二是具有非常的出身與修行,以及諸多神異經驗的啟迪,還有實際精進不懈的修行,更設有乩壇──集慶壇,師承萬崙谷仙翁的教導,又對於儒、釋、道的經典,都具有傳播與流傳的貢獻,加諸和雲谷禪師的淵源,得以被瑜珈法教尊奉為傳法祖師──吳公太宰。第陸章聚焦於明代瑜珈法教神譜的轉變與傳播,發現瑜珈法教積極的向中央政府靠攏,通過政府肯定的天臺山、嵩公道德、吳公太宰等,建構自身的正統性、合法性與權威性,此外,根據目前閱讀所及,神譜的祖師又具有「嵩公道德、吳公太宰」與「淨光和尚、吳公太宰」兩種組合,佛教史上的淨光和尚對於天臺宗具有重大的貢獻,然而,卻和吳公太宰的聯繫薄弱,故進而將淨光一詞置於嵩、吳祖師的脈絡思考,發現以雲谷禪師為中介的師傳者,淨光還具有經典與儀式的內涵,所以瑜珈法教神譜以嵩、吳祖師為主。與此同時,發現晚明歷經農民起義、明清鼎革等動亂,使得南明王朝的軍隊、義士與遺民,逐漸從浙江移入福建繼續固守或避難,瑜珈法教也隨之傳播至閩中地區。
The topic of doctoral thesis focused on From Manhood to Becoming a Deity: A Study on Wu Peng's Life and His Practice to Godhood-Promotion in the Ming Dynasty.Through the way of collection, comparison and textual research to find the historical documents such as Chronicles(“Wu taizao gong nianpu” 《吳太宰公年譜》), anthology (“Feihong ting ji” 《飛鴻亭集》) and "Siku Quanshu"(《四庫全書》) and local chronicles, supplemented with data from field surveys in the Minzhong area of Fujian, this article studied how Wu Peng, the civil official in the Ming Dynasty, learned from the developed way of manhood to becoming a perfect deity. What the key points of the subjective conditions were his Life story, official career, network of relationships, miraculous experience, and the other of the objective conditions were historical context in the Ming dynasty, social background, and influence of Taoism and Buddhism in Jiangnan area. Therefore the elite community in Jiangnan area and disciples of Tantric yoga agree with Wu Peng’s Taoist practice and contribution that they regarded him as a preach founder in the theogony of Tantric yoga.This doctoral thesis was divided into preface, the other five parts and conclusions. In the chapter two and three, it was focused on Wu Peng’s biography (“Wupeng Liezhuan”〈吳鵬列傳〉) and his family history, youthhood change, and career experience, and then expanded to social relations networks such as kinship, geography, and career. It was solved to the problem that historical materials to Wu Peng had biased evaluation, and the doubt why historical documents did not include"Wu Peng Biography" in the manuscript of Ming history (“Mingshi gao”《明史稿》) . The reason was discovered that the party disputes in the late Ming Dynasty were quite fierce and the problems of the editors in the manuscript of Ming history led to the unfair points of reading the historical documents of the Ming Dynasty. Through a variety of perspectives, the standard for the interpretation of historical documents was constructed in this article, and then it went deep into the other chapters. Chapters four and five focused on one’s status that Wu Peng had from manhood to becoming a deity in some subjective and objective conditions. The first is to relieve hunger, manage rivers, and resist rebellion, which his heroic deeds in accordance with the standards of the"Book of Rites" that protect the people from harm and became an alive deity at the shrine. The second is to have extraordinary background and practice, as well as his enlightenment from many miraculous experiences that made him to reveal practical diligence and unremitting practice. He set up a sacred field Jiqing altar, which he was under the fairy old man’s teachings in Wanlungu (萬崙谷), and his contribution to spread the thought of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism classics. In addition, fromthe origins of Zen Master Yungu (雲谷禪師), he can be respected as the patriarch of Tantric yoga, Wu Gong Dazai (吳公太宰).Chapter six focused on the transformation and dissemination in the theogony of Tantric yoga teachings in the Ming Dynasty. It was found that yoga teachings were actively approaching to the side of central authority, and through the government affirmed Tiantai Mountain, Song Gong daode, Wu Gong Dazai to construct its own legitimacy and authority. In addition, according to what I have read so far, the patriarch in the theogony had two combinations of"Song Gong daode" (嵩公道德), "Wu Gong Dazai" and "Jing Guang monk" (淨光和尚), "Wu Gong Dazai". Jing Guang monk had a significant contribution to Tiantai Buddhism in the religion history. But its connection with Wu Gong Dazai was weak, so it put the term "Jing Guang" in the context of the patriarch of Song and Wu. It was found that the apprentices who used the thought of Zen Master Yungu as an intermediary considered that Jing Guang also had the connotation in the classics and the ritual, so that its teachings were based on Song and Wu master in the theogony of Tantric yoga. At the same time, it was discovered that people encountered the peasant revolution and authority change in the late Ming Dynasty. It caused the army, righteous men and survivors in the Southern Ming Dynasty to move gradually from Zhejiang to Fujian to stay or take refuge, and the teachings of Tantric yoga also spread to the area of central Fujian.
吳鵬, 瑜珈法教, 神譜, 出身修行, 成神之道, Wu Peng, Tantric yoga, Theogony, Biography and Practice, Paths of becoming gods