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Title: 國小五年級學童裝置藝術教學的歷程分析
Authors: 張景媛
Keywords: 裝置藝術教學
teaching of installation art
process analysis
action research
Issue Date: 2004
Abstract: 本研究的主要目的是:1.瞭解藝術與人文教師的教育理念與其對「裝置藝術」教學的課程設計理念。2.探討學童在「裝置藝術」教學活動中,其構思與分享創作主題的歷程。3.分析學童在「裝置藝術」教學活動中,將個人構思的主題落實為作品的學習歷程。4.探究學童在完成「裝置藝術」的作品後,其鑑賞同學作品時的評鑑準則。5.分析學童對「裝置藝術」教學的學習感受、學習態度、作品成果與學習成效的滿意度。 本研究是採取協同行動研究方式進行,由研究者與一位教學者協同合作,由兩人共同編擬課程,以台北縣某國小五年級二個班級、45位學童為對象,實施自編「裝置藝術」教學活動。 研究者運用「兒童裝置藝術作品中多元訊息的探討」、「教學者的教學檔案」、「裝置藝術單元:啟發創作靈感學習單」、「超級推銷員『三人小組』練習紀錄單」、「超級推銷員回饋評量表」、「『裝置藝術』製作過程回顧問卷」、「『裝置藝術』鑑賞回饋單」、「裝置藝術設計圖與作品差異評分表」等,進行教學的歷程分析。主要的發現如下: 一、藝術與人文教師的成長與學習經驗所形成的教育理念,會影響教師在教學單元活動設計中,引進新觀念的整合力,以及在教學過程中,接受研究者的介入,並接納更動課程設計建議的包容力。 二、經過放鬆訓練與啟發創作靈感的引導教學方式,可以具體有效的協助學童建構其「裝置藝術」的主題。這些主題的內容,都是學童個人親身的經驗與感動,幾乎看不到流行文化與同儕的影響。 三、學童經由「三人小組」小團體學習方式比「全班」大團體學習方式,較可以深入的分享個人裝置藝術設計圖、創作動機與所使用材料的構思,並且得較多受同儕的支持、鼓勵與提醒等正向回饋的機會。 四、有九成的學童在實作的過程中,遇到材料與技術上的問題。多數的學童採取正向因應的方式,透由自己的努力與同學、老師的協助,有效的解決問題。學童除了從中學習到材料與技巧的新經驗外,還有學習到:自我激勵、社會互助,以及新發現的概念。 五、在教學者、研究者、作者三方對學童「設計圖」與「作品」兩者差異的主觀判斷中,出現不完全一致的現象。以作者的評量觀點為標準,教學者的觀點較為寬鬆,研究者的觀點較為嚴格。另外,影響學童鑑賞同學裝置藝術的主要因素包含:1.在主題上,偏好能引起學童快樂的、回憶的、共鳴的主題內容;2.在形式上,偏好色彩鮮豔、技術精巧、完整度高的作品;3.在創意上,能引發學童高度想像空間、意境表達的作品。 六、在裝置藝術教學的滿意度分析中,近九成的學童表示他們的學習態度是認真,有八成以上的學童表示喜歡上本單元的教學活動,有一半的學童對自己的裝置藝術作品感到滿意,下回再做時,有三分之二的學童表示:有把握做得更好。 學童在本單元的學習收穫為:1.在認知上,知道如何把想法表現出來、認識藝術、學會如何欣賞同學的作品與了解同學的想法;2.在情意上,學會如何克服困難、如何與同學合作、如何幫助別人與讓自己成長;3.在技巧上,學到如何使用與選用材料、如何設計、如何配色。多數學童期待教學者下次上進階單元時,能提供技巧、材料與工具上的協助。
The purpose of this study is: 1) to understand the teaching concepts of instructors on arts and humanities education and their application of such concepts to the curriculum design and teaching of installation art; 2) to explore the process in which the students generate their themes and share their ideas during the installation art program; 3) to analyze the learning process wherein the students create real artwork out of blueprints; 4) to investigate how the students appreciate and evaluate the work by peers after completing their own installation work; and 5) to make analysis on the students’ feelings, attitudes, artwork, and satisfaction with the results throughout the installation art program. Based on the collaboration action research method, the researcher worked with an elementary school teacher, co-designing the installation art curriculum. 45 fifth-graders from two classes at an elementary school in Taipei County were invited as participants of the program. The process analysis of the research is conducted with reference to the studies or reviews as follows: “The Exploration of Multiple Messages in Children’s Installation Artwork”, “An Instructor’s Teaching Files”, “Unit of Installation Art: Student Worksheet for Idea Inspiration and Creation”, “Practice Record of Small Groups”, “Feedback Evaluation of the Whole Class”, “A Questionnaire on Reviewing the Production Process of Installation Art”, “A Feedback Worksheet for the Appreciation of Installation Art”, and “Differentiation Scale for Installation Artwork Design and Result”. According to the detailed investigation, it is manifested in the present study that: 1. The teaching concepts, closely related to personal growth and learning experience, of instructors on arts and humanities education will influence how they design a program, including incorporating new ideas into teaching activities, accepting the presence of researchers in class, and attending to their suggestions. 2. The students can be successfully helped to construct a variety of themes on installation art if previously given a section of relax training and instructed step by step to invoke inspiration. These themes generally result from personal experience and feelings, instead of popular culture or peer effect. 3. In the interaction section, a small group works better than a whole class. Students allocated in small groups have more opportunities to share their individual design, motivation and construction of material than their counterparts in a class. They also get more positive feedbacks like support, encouragement and reminding from peers. 4. 90% of the students in the program have had certain problems with material or skills while creating their work. Most of them resort to positive reaction. With the help from classmates and teachers, and the effort by themselves, they find the solution at last. In addition to learning new skills and material, they have also learned how to encourage themselves, mutually help each other, and discover new ideas. 5. During the appraising process, the teacher, the researcher, and the creator show interesting differences in judgment as regards the original design graph and the final work of a student. In terms of the standard by the creator, the researcher, as an outsider, seems to have a higher one. The teacher, on the other hand, uses more tolerant criteria to judge a pupil’s work. Moreover, the key factors affecting the student’s evaluation of the installation work include: 1) topics—the more pleasant ones, like happy, memorable and shared moments, receive more applause; 2) forms—the brighter in color and the more delicate in technique, the higher in score; and 3) originality—works which initiate more imagination and express deeper meanings definitely catch the eye of the audience. 6. When asked about how they like the installation art program, almost 90% of the pupils reply that they work hard in class, 80% enjoy the teaching activity in question, and half of the participants feel satisfied with their installation artwork. “Next time we are sure to do it better,” two thirds of the students say in an assured tone. To sum up, from this program the students have learned: 1) cognitively, how to express their own ideas, understand arts, appreciate the work by classmates and know what they think about; 2) affectively, how to cope with difficulty, cooperate with classmates, assist others, and help themselves develop; 3) technically, how to choose from and use different material, designs, and colors. Many students are expecting more instruction on skills, material and tools of the teacher in the advanced program in the future.
Other Identifiers: N2004000157
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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