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Images of Family and Gender in Victorian Paintings
Victorian domestic painting
本論文第二章闡述中產階級的崛起及其推動理想家庭生活的背景，藉由中產階級家庭意識觀的核心觀念：二元領域論，刻畫家庭日常生活畫中家庭成員扮演的角色及維多利亞價值觀賦予的形象。第三章關注維多利亞家庭觀中兩種極端的女性形象：「家庭天使」與「墮落女性」，藉由理想女性與外遇女子形象的分析，能清楚理解十九世紀視道德行為的優劣為階級認同的法則；本章以Augustus Egg的Past and Present為代表，探索繪畫作為警示維多利亞時期婚姻及兩性雙重標準的指向，使其不只是道德非議的圖像之一。第四章透過家庭繪畫的分類與整理，一方面重建中產階級男性經歷家庭規範的情形，平衡男性於家庭形象的論述篇幅遠少於女性的現象；另一方面以中產階級贊助的勞動階級農舍家庭類型，突顯中產階級致力維繫社會地位及家庭男性權威形象的意圖。|
This thesis studies Victorian domestic paintings and tries to find out the consistency between the paintings and the middle-class ideology in the nineteenth century. With this consistency, the theme of my thesis is to illustrate that the way middle class mold identity and culture authority. The second chapter gives a brief background of the growth of the middle-classes and the trend of ideal domestic thought. By discussing the core of middle-class domestic ideology, the concept of separate spheres according to sex/gender/class, we figure out the family roles which daily paintings play in and their images which Victorian value system constructs. Chapter three concerns two extreme female prototypes of Victorian domestic ideology: ‘Angel in the House’ and ‘Fallen Woman’. Analysis of both female ideal and the ‘adulteress’ makes it clear that the regulation of moral behavior during nineteenth century was part of a wider formation of class identity. This chapter also focuses on Augustus Egg’s Past and Present. Rather than the painting being a morally didactic work, Past and Present might be seen as Egg’s warning against the double standard of Victorian marriage and gender. Chapter four categorizes Victorian family paintings. That not only helps us realize how middle-class men experienced the domestic life, but also enriches discussions about man’s lifestyle in the private sphere. Besides, working-class cottage paintings mainly patronized by middle class may emphasize the intention of middle class devoting to maintain its social status in hierarchy and the patriarchal authority in domestic sphere.
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